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Sacred Erotic Art and Themes of Nepal (An Analytical Study and Interpretations of Religion Based Sex Expressions Misconstrued as Pornography)

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ABOUT THIS EDITION This book is widely appreciated by international scholars and has been very enthusiastically reviewed with high appreciation in many reputed magazines. This inspired the authors to bring out the new edition of this book. In this edition, colour pictures have profusely been given. All designs are redrawn. Several portions of chapters are carefully rewritten and amended. New matter has also been poured in and new symbolic interpretations are given. The authors have a...
ABOUT THIS EDITION

This book is widely appreciated by international scholars and has been very enthusiastically reviewed with high appreciation in many reputed magazines. This inspired the authors to bring out the new edition of this book.

In this edition, colour pictures have profusely been given. All designs are redrawn. Several portions of chapters are carefully rewritten and amended. New matter has also been poured in and new symbolic interpretations are given. The authors have again surveyed temples in Nepal in its length and breadth. The list of the temples with erotic art is also revised. A new double-colour map is appended. The book is completely reset on computer with new format.

All the line-drawings given in this book are eye-copies drawn from the temples of Nepal. Erotic sculptures are those made by Nepalese artists true to iconography. The authors ventured to with this book as erotic art is on the verge of loosing its ground. Now no new temples constructed have erotic scenes. However, those which are renovated depict erotic scenery as they are almost replicas or are exact reproductions of the original ones.

We hope this book which is now in a completely new form and approach will be well-received. Suggestions by learned readers are most welcome.

Introduction

Nepal has a unique position of its own with regard to its culture, anthropology, geography and natural sciences. The country has preserved its complex ethnic organisations. Various sects of Buddhism and Hinduism have flourished in the past and continue to flourish today. Some original thoughts or philosophy in connection with these religions also emerged as a result of the subtle forms of dogmas being practised in Nepal. The Tantric sects also established themselves and prevailed. Here one could discern the impact of various traditions and philosophies both from India and Tibet. When Buddhism declined in India, it had its followers, in fact it was gaining ground in Nepal. The original monastic character of Buddhism disappeared and the old conventional community has been replaced by the community of bandas, who are caste Buddhists. They are called Vajracharyas. Although in the past they observed strict religious celibacy, privately under the Tantric influence, they led a normal social and sex life. The office of Vajracharyas was hereditary and each family took charge of a monastery (Vihara). These religious centers developed into various shrines of learning and attracted Nepalese and Tibetan scholars. Vajracharyas maintained and developed Buddhist culture in Nepal. Later on they came to be greatly influenced by Tantrism.

Another great religion, Hinduism, with all its principal schools, had also grown in Nepal. The cult of Shiva in the form of Pashupati, which is regarded by its followers as the protector of the country, was wide-spread. One of the sects, which also grew side by side, was that of Vishnu followers. The concept of Shakti, the great mother goddess. also became popular. Shakti was worshipped in the form of energy and vitality and it is supported by the belief that without Shakti, Shiva is shava (corpse). In addition to this, some other forms revolved round the cult of Ganesh, the elephant headed son of Lord Shiva. The development of the cut of Ganesh resulted in the widespread practice of Ganesh worship for all purposes. The great popularity of Ganesh is testified by the existence of innumerable temples of Ganesh in different corners of the streets in the Kathmandu Valley.

Later on intermingling of the two sects, Hinduism and Buddhism, took place and this initiated the practice of describing the gods of both the religions in terms that correspond to each other. Tantric Buddhist regarded consort or mother as energy, while the Hindu school believed in the concept of Shakti. These beliefs led to the concept of a female as vigour and energy. It was also considered that Shakti (power or energy) is God's inexhaustible creative force.

In Shaivism, this power or energy includes the power of will, the power of wisdom and the power of action. The theosophical concept developed suggesting that this universe is conceived as a result of embrace between the divine couple or of the division of the first principle into self and other than self through the intervention of Shakti, as an emanation of a conscious Being. In traditional thinking, importance was given to the generative forces of nature. Certain orgiastic rites 'ere preserved which pointed out the origin of creation. This also resulted in the temporary suspension of the normal rules of social life.

Thus, as a part of cosmological conception and a ritual designed to stimulate le forces of nature for ensuring fruitfulness on earth and for warding off the anger of barrenness, there developed a desire for sexual relationship. This was not a sudden surge of desire but it was the result of a real impact of religion, philosophy of life and various other things. It was also realized that creation is of vital importance for other activities. The creation of multiplicity comes under the heading of manifestation. Danielou (1964) aptly writes, "Everything in the work of manifestation is intended to create the illusion of multiplicity and to prevent realization of the basic oneness of all beings for this world leads to the destruction if the notion of oneness which is power of cohesion that holds together the individual being, the witness that gives reality to the cosmos. Any weakening of the centripetal tendency characteristic of the individuality contrary to the process ff world's creation."

In Nepal, it was also felt that the aim of any creator is to prevent a realization of this act by his subject which would destroy his creation. In Nepal, nature has ways inspired its inhabitants, and influenced their ideas and thoughts. That was e reason why all rules of social morality, all forms of worldly and sacred knowledge and all bonds of religion and rites were intended to take man away from the path of liberation through a promise of heavenly bliss of pleasure.

Contents

 

1 Why this book 14
2 Introduction 21
3 Hindu Philosophy of Life 31
4 Attitude towards life 45
5 Evolution of the Erotic Expression 49
6 Sex is not taboo 55
7 Sex is not an enigma 62
8 What is Erotic symbolism 66
9 Morphology of Erotic art 70
10 Where erotic art forms art depicted 82
11 Explanations for depictions of erotic carvings on temples, 100
12 Concept of Linga or Phallus 102
13 Concept of Yoni (Female organ) 121
14 Concept of Shiva shakti 127
15 Concept of Purusha Prakriti 132
16 Concept of Ishvar -Maya 139
17 Concept of Radha Krishna 144
18 Concept of Ardhanarishwara (Hermaphrodite) 149
19 Buddhistic Interpretation 153
20 Concept of a Lotus 159
21 Impact of Kama (Eros) 164
22 Impact of Kamasutra (Science of Eroticism0 172
23 Impact of Maithuna (Sexual Indulgence) 199
24 Impact of Sex Education 190
25 Impact of Sexual magic 196
26 Impact of Enjoyment (Bliss )and Lila (Divine Play) 199
27 Influence of Karma (Action) 205
27A Fire in Karma Yoga 208
28 Impact of the Story of Creation 210
29 Impact of the Philosophy of Life and Death 214
30 Impact of Literature 222
31 Impact of Yoga 228
32 Impact of Tantrism 235
33 Influence of tibetan Tantrism or Shamanism 247
34 Impact of yab-Yum ( Sexual Union) 250
35 Impact of Yin Yang 258
36 Influence of subtle body 260
37 Influence of Kundalini shakti (Serpent power 264
38 Artist's viewpoint 269
39 Protection from Lightning 275
40 Influence of Indra 277
41 Influence of Kumari 279
42 Influence of Temptation or Incitement 281
43 Fear as a serious contender 283
44 Influence of Shocking animal Magic 285
45 For encouraging procreation 292
46 Representation of a mystical or symbolic language 288
47 For Encouraging procreation 290
48 Differences of cultures between East and West 294
49 symbol of transition from present life to the next 296
50 Influence of Indian thought 299
51 Some other logical interpretation 302
52 Comparison of Erotic arts of Nepal and India 308
53 A Catalogue of nepalese temples with erotic arts 312
54 Select references 315
55 Index 321
  The authors 327
  Review of the Book 328

 












Item Code: NAJ128 Author: Trilok Chandra Majupuria and Indra Majupuria Cover: Paperback Edition: 2009 Publisher: Indra Majupuria, Nepal ISBN: 9789937214483 Language: English Size: 8.5 inch X 5.5 inch Pages: 327 (19 Color and Throughout B/W Illustrations) Other Details: Weight of the Book: 560 gms
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