The DSA, Sanskrit, Jadavpur University, is glad to announce that Arthasamgraha: A Critical Study has been published under the authorship of Prof. Pradyot Kumar Datta. The Arthasamgraha was written by Laugaksi Bhaskara for the better understanding of the contents of the Purva-Mimamsa. Professor Datta has elaborated this text with critical insight and often with the scientific analysis of various technical terms contained therein. Prof. Datta has shown us as to hoe the Arthasamgraha has developed itself as a powerful system of philosophy emphasising and justifying the Vedic ritualistic aspects and their relation to Karma or religion. We expect that the DSA, Sanskrit, will have the opportunity of having similar other books in future from the Vedic scholar, Professor Datta.
Manabendu BanerjeeCOORDINATOR, DSA, SANSKRIT
The Vedas influenced either directly or indirectly the philosophical thoughts of India. Then six principal systems of philosophy arose. There were two sides like and knowledge through the Vedic tradition. The sacrificial formulas and spells of the Brahmanas are worthy to be noted in many Vedic portions. The ritualistic activities are required for attaining eternal happiness.
The sacrifices occupied a prominent place in the Vedic rituals. The use of material objects as symbol of deities was not perhaps altogether unknown. The society depends on righteousness. Great changes take place in the religious life of Indian people. The religion means aim and purpose of objects recommended by the Vedas.
The sacrificial side of religion was greatly developed by the priests. The system of upright society has been reflected in the Vedas through the religious condition of ancient India people with righteous process so-called the then dharma i.e. Piety. The Mimamsa Scripture examines the sacrificial rites. The School of Early Mimamsa is closely related to the Vedas for principal interpretation.
The present work gives a short exposition of the Purvamimamsa system of Indian Philosophy. This particular branch of study is an attractive one to the Indian system of thought. Its primary object is to give a philosophical theory to the rites and rituals having their appeal to the modern Indian mind. The universal apathy has resulted owing to the emergence of erroneous and diversified notions about its doctrines. A first-hand acquaintance with the Purvamimamsa system is necessary before any one engaging himself to a study of other systems of philosophy. This system is a vast subject with a large number of various recensions. Such a task is chiefly pre-occupied with the metaphysical and epistemological sides of this scripture.
Another class of works to be closest with the Vedic literature, but not to be said the Veda is called a type of ritualistic activities. They are designated briefly manuals on ritual as composed in peculiar aphoristic prose style. Such the works belonging to the kalpa group among the fourfold types like Srauta, Dharma etc are individually connected with each recension of the Vedas. They originated in certain Vedic schools setting themselves the latest study of a Veda. The rituals constituting the chief contents of the Brahmana texts as auxiliary sciences receive the systematic treatment in special manuals. These works serve a purely practical purpose by making needs for compiling rules in the sacrificial rituals more manageable and connected also.
The origin of the Purvamimamsa may be traced back to the Vedic literature. Jaimini at about the 4th Century B.C. is the author of the Purvamimamsasutra. Such the text embodies a varied discussion on the rituals, and seeks to explain them on a philosophical standpoint. The term 'Mimamsa' means the reasoning to understand the connotation either of a word or a sentence. 'Purva' - this indicates such a reasoning in regard to the sacrifices forming the earlier portion i.e. - Karma of the Vedas. It is required for understanding the texts not only, but also the unorthodox outlook to analyse the philosophical arguments where the Purvapaksa was right and the Uttarapaksa sidetracked the issue in a question.
This system of Mimamsa is elsewhere called the Karmamimamsa dealing with the performance of sacrifices in all its details. Its chief concern is the performance of rites. Such problems of philosophy as the nature either of ultimate reality or the soul do not find any favour with its exponents. This system strikingly lacks in presenting a philosophical view of the universe thought it professes to be realistic. Despite all these pitfalls it must be admitted that the modern apathy to the system is surely suicidal in view of the fact that without a study of it any knowledge of other system can not be complete.
The Mimamsasutra of earlier portion of the Vedas have been first commented upon by Sabarasvamin at the first Century B.C. Kumarila Bhatta at the 7th Century A.D. work on such a commentary. Prabhakara Misra, the formulator of the famous Prabhakara school was the pupil of Kumarila. His Brhati is a commentary on the bhasya of Sabara. Prabhakara is the faithful one among the followers of Sabara, while Kumarila often dissents from Sabara. Bhavanatha's Nyayaviveka is other work of the Prabhakara, Navyaprabhakara and Apadeva's Mimamsa Nyaya-Prakasa as well as Laugaksi Bhaskara's Arthasamgraha. The text Arthasamgraha is compiled a systematising principle at the Vedic rituals for adjudicating their applications. The book composed by Laugaksi Bhaskara, a resident of South India condenses topics like vidhi etc of the Purvamimamsa to serve as a gateway to the philosophical system for the beginners. It means a treatise dealing with the topics to be worthy for mentioning in pursuing the studies of the Early Mimamsa. Such the text is profound in contents through simple and lucid style of the languages. A critical study on this text with special reference to its technical terms consists of main subjects of the Early Mimamsa system for easily entry into the Jaiminiya Scripture. This Mimamsa is nearly related to the Vedas for investigation of the rituals providing their principles.
Pradyot Kumar Datta
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