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Daimabad 1976-79
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Daimabad 1976-79
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Preface

A number of archaeological sites has been excavated by the officers of the Archaeological Survey of India in the past three decades and more. Unfortunately, the reports of many of those excavations have remained unpublished. Thanks to our Prime Minister, Archeological Survey can do more feel the dearth of funds for its various activities. With the increased budget allocation we have launched a programme of publishing all the pending reports. In this endeavour many of the officers/ excavators have been extending their co-operation. Dr. S.A.Sali is one such officer, who undertook the task of completing the writing of the report on the excavations at Daimabad, for which he was responsible between 1976 and 1979. Dr. Sali deserves our special gratitude, because even after retirement in May 1984, he worked incessantly in a small room at Bibi-ka-Maqbara in Aurangabad and submitted his report in two stages and has seen his manuscript through the Press, the result of which is the present work.

Daimabad is one of the most important sites for the study of proto-historic cultures of India. Discovered in 1958, it was subjected to limited excavations in 1959, which yielded three clear periods of occupation viz., Neolithic, Malwa and Jorwe periods of proto-historic Deccan (Indian Archaeology 1959-60 – A Review, pp.15-18). However, with the discovery of a cache of solid bronze figurines, albeit in an unstratified context, the site at once assumed significance, in the context of extension of the Harappan civilization further south. Hence, Dr. Sali was entrusted with the task of excavating the site horizontally.

The excavations at Daimabad between 1976 and 1979, have made significant contribution to our knowledge. According to the excavator, five periods of chalcolithic culture have been distinguished, viz. the Savalda, the late Harappan, Daimabad, the Malwa and the Jorwe, based primarily on the pottery tradition of the proto-historic folk. The excavator pushes the date of occupation of the site to the beginning of the second millennium B.C. (with correction to C.14 dates as per MASCA calibrations). Be that as it may, the dig has brought out an extremely interesting array of evidence, which helps in reconstructing the life of proto-historic folk in the Deccan till about 1000B.C., when the site appears to have been abandoned. We do hope that this report will help scholars and researchers in interpreting the early history of our people.

In regard to the present publication, I must record my appreciation of the staff of Archaeological Survey of India’s publications wing. Shri K.N.Dikshit, Director, assisted by Shri K.P.Padhy, has been doing his best to clear the pending reports of excavations. Dr. Sali himself has spared no pains, and has come to Delhi for lengthy period of stay, even after retirement, and seen the work through the press, for sheer love of the subject. To all of them, I extend sincere thanks. M/s. Vap Enterprise, New Delhi have spared no pains to produce this attractive volume. I offer them my thanks.

Contents

Introductory1
AThe Problem and the objective of the work1
BPrevious Work4
CAcknowledgement9
The Site and Its Environs11
The Sequence of Cultures and Chief Characteristics of each culture20
AIntroductory20
BPhase I : The Savalda Culture21
CPhase II : The Late Harappa Culture23
DPhase III : The Daimabad Culture26
EPhase IV : The Malwa Culture28
FPhase V : The Jorwe Culture33
The Cuttings41
AIntroductory41
BCutting CZ52-FZ52 to CZ61-FZ6141
CCutting FZ63-FZ64 to JZ63-JZ6450
DCutting DY2655
ECutting L4857
FCutting B8-C8-D8-B9-C959
GCutting A1-A261
HCutting X'3-X'5 to Z'3-Z'566
ICutting X'2-X'1 to Y'2-Y'169
JCutting Y170
KCutting Z'1-Z'2 to BZ'1-BZ'271
LCutting AZ'3-CZ'3 to AZ'5-CZ'572
MCutting DZ'1-DZ'3 to EZ'1-EZ'373
NCutting Z63-Z6974
OCutting Z69-Z70 to AZ69-AZ7075
PCutting ZD60-ZD6275
QPits78
The Structures
1Introductory79
2Phase I : The Savalda Culture81
A. Introductory81
B. Structural Phase A81
C. Structural Phase B83
3Phase II : The Late Harappa Culture88
A. Mud-brick structures88
B. Mudwall structures88
4Phase III : The Daimabad Culture92
5Phase IV : The Malwa Culture93
A. Introductory93
B. Strctural Phase A93
C. Structural Phase B98
6Phase V : The Jorwe Culture125
A. Introductory125
B. Structural phase A125
C. Structural Phase B146
D. Structural Phase C148
E. Structural Phase D157
F. Structural Phase E163
The Burials166
AIntroductory166
BDescription of burials175
1. Phase II175
2. Phase III179
3. Phase IV183
4. Overlap between the Malwa and the Jorwe Phases191
5. Phase V192
AGroup I192
1. Type A192
BGroup II192
CGroup III195
1. Type A195
2. Type B205
3. Type C205
Chronology 206
The pottery 212
AIntroductory212
BPhase I : The Savalda Culture213
CPhase II : The Late Harappa Culture231
DPhase III : The Daimabad Culture248
EPhase IV : The Malwa Culture288
FPhase V : The Jorwe Culture337
Other Finds401
AThe stone tool industries
BThe hafted blade452
CStone Objects452
DStone sculptures464
EThe bronzes477
FTerracotta objects479
GHuman figurines in applique on pottery496
HIncised cult object504
IInscribed terracotta seals and potsherds504
JTerracotta stamp seal505
KTerracotta cylinder seal508
LSunbaked clay objects511
MCopper objects512
NBeads518
OShell objects550
PBone objects554
QPottery objects564
RWeights and measures568
SPiece of gold573
Contributions and Conclusions574
Appendix I : Geoarchaeology of Daimabad by Dr. S.N. Rajaguru, Deccan College, Pune
AIntroduction580
BPalaeoenvironmental significance of buried soil and flood gravels580
1. Buried soil580
2. Flood gravels585
CDiscussion585
Appendix II : Ancient plant economy at Daimabad by Vishnu Mittre, Aruna Sharma and Chanchala,0
Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow588
1Introduction588
2Description of plant remains588
A. Leaf impressions590
B. Carbonized grains and590
C. Charcoals611
3Conclusions623
Appendix III : Chemical analysis sis of habitational deposits and animal bones from Daimabad628
AChemical analysis of habitational deposits628
BBone analyses636
Appendix IV : Analysis of Daimabad Bronzes in %638
Appendix V : Percentage elemental composition of Daimabad elephant and rhino samples obtained
through atomic absorption spectrophoto640
Appendix VI : Palaeodemography of Protohistoric Daimabad <>/b641
Appendix VII : Determination of Firing Temperatures of Pottery of Chalcolithic Daimabad741
Annexure745
Sample Pages

























Daimabad 1976-79

Item Code:
NAL088
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
1986
Language:
English
Size:
11 inch X 9 inch
Pages:
762 (Throughout B/W Illustrations)
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Weight of the Book: 2.4 kg
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Preface

A number of archaeological sites has been excavated by the officers of the Archaeological Survey of India in the past three decades and more. Unfortunately, the reports of many of those excavations have remained unpublished. Thanks to our Prime Minister, Archeological Survey can do more feel the dearth of funds for its various activities. With the increased budget allocation we have launched a programme of publishing all the pending reports. In this endeavour many of the officers/ excavators have been extending their co-operation. Dr. S.A.Sali is one such officer, who undertook the task of completing the writing of the report on the excavations at Daimabad, for which he was responsible between 1976 and 1979. Dr. Sali deserves our special gratitude, because even after retirement in May 1984, he worked incessantly in a small room at Bibi-ka-Maqbara in Aurangabad and submitted his report in two stages and has seen his manuscript through the Press, the result of which is the present work.

Daimabad is one of the most important sites for the study of proto-historic cultures of India. Discovered in 1958, it was subjected to limited excavations in 1959, which yielded three clear periods of occupation viz., Neolithic, Malwa and Jorwe periods of proto-historic Deccan (Indian Archaeology 1959-60 – A Review, pp.15-18). However, with the discovery of a cache of solid bronze figurines, albeit in an unstratified context, the site at once assumed significance, in the context of extension of the Harappan civilization further south. Hence, Dr. Sali was entrusted with the task of excavating the site horizontally.

The excavations at Daimabad between 1976 and 1979, have made significant contribution to our knowledge. According to the excavator, five periods of chalcolithic culture have been distinguished, viz. the Savalda, the late Harappan, Daimabad, the Malwa and the Jorwe, based primarily on the pottery tradition of the proto-historic folk. The excavator pushes the date of occupation of the site to the beginning of the second millennium B.C. (with correction to C.14 dates as per MASCA calibrations). Be that as it may, the dig has brought out an extremely interesting array of evidence, which helps in reconstructing the life of proto-historic folk in the Deccan till about 1000B.C., when the site appears to have been abandoned. We do hope that this report will help scholars and researchers in interpreting the early history of our people.

In regard to the present publication, I must record my appreciation of the staff of Archaeological Survey of India’s publications wing. Shri K.N.Dikshit, Director, assisted by Shri K.P.Padhy, has been doing his best to clear the pending reports of excavations. Dr. Sali himself has spared no pains, and has come to Delhi for lengthy period of stay, even after retirement, and seen the work through the press, for sheer love of the subject. To all of them, I extend sincere thanks. M/s. Vap Enterprise, New Delhi have spared no pains to produce this attractive volume. I offer them my thanks.

Contents

Introductory1
AThe Problem and the objective of the work1
BPrevious Work4
CAcknowledgement9
The Site and Its Environs11
The Sequence of Cultures and Chief Characteristics of each culture20
AIntroductory20
BPhase I : The Savalda Culture21
CPhase II : The Late Harappa Culture23
DPhase III : The Daimabad Culture26
EPhase IV : The Malwa Culture28
FPhase V : The Jorwe Culture33
The Cuttings41
AIntroductory41
BCutting CZ52-FZ52 to CZ61-FZ6141
CCutting FZ63-FZ64 to JZ63-JZ6450
DCutting DY2655
ECutting L4857
FCutting B8-C8-D8-B9-C959
GCutting A1-A261
HCutting X'3-X'5 to Z'3-Z'566
ICutting X'2-X'1 to Y'2-Y'169
JCutting Y170
KCutting Z'1-Z'2 to BZ'1-BZ'271
LCutting AZ'3-CZ'3 to AZ'5-CZ'572
MCutting DZ'1-DZ'3 to EZ'1-EZ'373
NCutting Z63-Z6974
OCutting Z69-Z70 to AZ69-AZ7075
PCutting ZD60-ZD6275
QPits78
The Structures
1Introductory79
2Phase I : The Savalda Culture81
A. Introductory81
B. Structural Phase A81
C. Structural Phase B83
3Phase II : The Late Harappa Culture88
A. Mud-brick structures88
B. Mudwall structures88
4Phase III : The Daimabad Culture92
5Phase IV : The Malwa Culture93
A. Introductory93
B. Strctural Phase A93
C. Structural Phase B98
6Phase V : The Jorwe Culture125
A. Introductory125
B. Structural phase A125
C. Structural Phase B146
D. Structural Phase C148
E. Structural Phase D157
F. Structural Phase E163
The Burials166
AIntroductory166
BDescription of burials175
1. Phase II175
2. Phase III179
3. Phase IV183
4. Overlap between the Malwa and the Jorwe Phases191
5. Phase V192
AGroup I192
1. Type A192
BGroup II192
CGroup III195
1. Type A195
2. Type B205
3. Type C205
Chronology 206
The pottery 212
AIntroductory212
BPhase I : The Savalda Culture213
CPhase II : The Late Harappa Culture231
DPhase III : The Daimabad Culture248
EPhase IV : The Malwa Culture288
FPhase V : The Jorwe Culture337
Other Finds401
AThe stone tool industries
BThe hafted blade452
CStone Objects452
DStone sculptures464
EThe bronzes477
FTerracotta objects479
GHuman figurines in applique on pottery496
HIncised cult object504
IInscribed terracotta seals and potsherds504
JTerracotta stamp seal505
KTerracotta cylinder seal508
LSunbaked clay objects511
MCopper objects512
NBeads518
OShell objects550
PBone objects554
QPottery objects564
RWeights and measures568
SPiece of gold573
Contributions and Conclusions574
Appendix I : Geoarchaeology of Daimabad by Dr. S.N. Rajaguru, Deccan College, Pune
AIntroduction580
BPalaeoenvironmental significance of buried soil and flood gravels580
1. Buried soil580
2. Flood gravels585
CDiscussion585
Appendix II : Ancient plant economy at Daimabad by Vishnu Mittre, Aruna Sharma and Chanchala,0
Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow588
1Introduction588
2Description of plant remains588
A. Leaf impressions590
B. Carbonized grains and590
C. Charcoals611
3Conclusions623
Appendix III : Chemical analysis sis of habitational deposits and animal bones from Daimabad628
AChemical analysis of habitational deposits628
BBone analyses636
Appendix IV : Analysis of Daimabad Bronzes in %638
Appendix V : Percentage elemental composition of Daimabad elephant and rhino samples obtained
through atomic absorption spectrophoto640
Appendix VI : Palaeodemography of Protohistoric Daimabad <>/b641
Appendix VII : Determination of Firing Temperatures of Pottery of Chalcolithic Daimabad741
Annexure745
Sample Pages

























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