This book investigates certain intricacies of the diction of the Vedic seers, to express the deeper and wider meaning by means of phonetically smaller unit like Karmapravacaniya (Adnominal). It looks into the development of the Pradis from Vedic to post-Vedic language. To some extent, it is an interdisciplinary work based on the Sanskrit grammar, features of Vedic language, which covers some linguistic aspects like phonology, morphology, syntax, semantic view, etc.
Dr. Kirti Sameer Kulkarni has completed her B.A and M.A. in Sanskrit from University of Pune. She has been awarded Ph.D. Degree from Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute (Deemed University), Pune. Since 1998, she is in the field of research and teaching of Sanskrit. She has several research articles to her credit. At present, she is working as an Editorial Assistant in the Department of Sanskrit & Lexicography, Deccan College, Pune.
It gives me great pleasure for writing the foreword to this work. This work is an outcome of Kirti's research carried out at Deccan College. I feel deeply satisfied with its publication. The background lies in the fact that, long back while editing the big and complicated entry of 'Anu' in the 'Encyclopedic Dictionary of Sanskrit', I could learn various subtle aspects of Vedic 'Karmapravacaniyas' (Adnominals) from the world renowned grammarian and Former General Editor of the Dictionary, Dr. S. D. Joshi. In those days, once he suggested me the theme of a major project about the Vedic Adnominals and Pardni's grammar and asked me to collect the data of all the 'Pradi' occurrences from the Vedic Literature. But later on it remained in thoughts only.
After 2010, when the Department of Sanskrit and Lexicography was established in Deccan College for conducting M.A and Ph. D courses, I suggested Kirti Kulkarni to work on the same theme but in a delimited manner of at least covering one Mai-Aglaia of the Rgveda. While suggesting this topic to her I was quite confident about her calibre and studiousness and she has proved it in actual. The topic of this work is related with the Vedic language especially with the 'Karmapravacaniyas' which is a salient feature of the Vedas and with Panini's grammar. Kirti has explained all the Pradis in general and the concept of 'Karmapravacaniyas' in Papinian, pre-Paninian and post-Paninian traditions. She has meticulously done analytical, critical and comprehensive study of every reference of Pradi from the fifth Mauclala of the Rgveda.
As a result, she has evidently claimed that there are certain 'Pradis' not considered as `Karmapravacaniyas' by Panini but which can be treated as 1Karmapravacaniyas' by applying the meaning conditions and the governing cases mentioned by Panini. The research successfully carried out by Kirti Kulkarni will surely arouse the interest of scholars anew in the field of Vedic studies and of Panini's grammar. I am very happy to see this research work getting published which in turn fulfilled our dream also to some extent.
It gives me immense pleasure to bring out this publication 'Karmapravacaniyas : Paninian & Vedic'. Karmapravacaniya is a technical term in Sanskrit Grammar, which is rendered in English as 'Adnominal'. I sincerely hope that this work will prove helpful for the students and the researchers of Sanskrit to have an exhaustive and clear idea about the notion of Karmapravacaniya in the Partinian system as well as in the Vedic language. It will help to find out the answers of certain queries like — why any Pradi has different meaning or different semantic dimensions, why the Pradis do change the meanings of the verbal roots, why it is said that the intransitive verbal roots, when occur along with the Pradis become transitive and so on. It will give a new perspective to see the development of the Pradis from Vedic to post-Vedic language.
The present work is a version of my Ph.D. Dissertation submitted to the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute (Deemed University), Pune. I express my sincere thanks and gratitude towards my guide Prof. Jayashree Sathe, former Pro-Vice-Chancellor and former Head of the Department, Sanskrit and Lexicography, Deccan College, Pune. I take it as my duty to acknowledge Prof. Saroja Bhate, Prof. Shailaja Katre, Prof. Vinaya Kshirsagar, Prof. Prasad Joshi, Prof. K. N. Hota, Dr. Mandakini Kinjawadekar, Mrs. Shalini Shendye and the world-renowned grammarian Prof. George Cardona, with sense of deep gratitude and thankfulness.
I am highly grateful towards my parents Mrs. Shailaja and Mr. Sharadachandra Thakar, husband Sameer and daughter Sai, who always firmly supported me in making this work possible.
I am thankful to all the authorities of Deccan College for granting me the permission to publish my Ph.D. Dissertation.
Lastly, I must thank Mr. Ravi Malhotra, Eastern Book Linkers, for bringing out this work so neatly and enthusiastically through his renowned agency.
(A) Pradis and the Vedas
Vedic literature is the prestigious contribution of Sanskrit to mankind. It is traditionally considered that the Vedas are apauruseya. The study of the Vedas has remained and will remain interesting and challenging for the scholars irrespective of time and space.
Rgveda, the foremost, is the treasure of various and numerous challenges. Its study is important from many aspects - such as culture, social life, philosophy, history, science, art, linguistics, grammar, style, syntax etc.
The present work is from the viewpoint of grammar. It is related to the Pradis, generally known as Upasargas. For this study, the fifth Mandala of the Rgveda has been selected as the base. Therefore, each and every Pradi, from the fifth Mandala of the Rgveda, is studied syntactically and semantically. This particular topic is selected out of the interest in Vedic language, its peculiarities, style and the grammatical forms and patterns, meaning analysis, etc.
The seer of the fifth Mandala is Atri and rsis from his family. There are 87 Suktas and 727 Mantras in this Mandala. Mantras are in the metres like Tristubh, Gayatri, Anustubh, Jagati, Pankti etc. The Mandala is comparatively small but has been remained the centre of interest for the scholars, due to the some important references like solar eclipse (5.40), kathiisuktas - gyavagvavivaha (5.61), garbhasravini upanisad (5.78.7-9), parjanyasukta (5.83) and so on. This Mandala has been studied previously from different aspects but the present work deals with the grammatical view regarding the structure of the Pradis, especially as Karmapravacaniyas (KPs).
The present work will consider all the separates Pradi-occurrences from the fifth Mandala of the Rgveda. In Sanskrit grammar, Pradis play an important and unique role. Pradi is a term given to the class of words beginning with pra, para, etc. The term Wadi is mentioned by Parlini for the first time in the rule pradayah P. 1.4.58. In all, Panini records twenty-two Pradis — pra, para, apa, sam, anu, ava, nis, nir, dus, dur, vi, CM, ni, adhi, api, ati, su, ud, abhi, prati, pari, upa. When they are added to the roots, they may change the meaning or Pada of the root. But, the important thing is that they can be added or connected not only to the roots, but also to the nouns or adjectives, or they can stand as a separate entity, i.e. as a single unit. Pradis are basically Nipatas2. Afterwards they fall under different categories such as Upasarga, Gati, Karmapravacaniya (KP), Kriyavigesana, Padapararia and Vibhaktyarthi-avyaya, out of which, the study of the Karmapravacaniyas is the topic of the present research. (see chart next page).
In classical Sanskrit, Pradis invariably get compounded with the verbs. So it is quite easy to differentiate their categories in classical Sanskrit. But, unlike of it, Vedic Sanskrit shows the special features of the Pradis. In the Vedas, Pradis can appear before a verbal form, after a verbal form or with an interruption. Pradis can have separate word-status. Though they are often separate from the verb, semantically they can be construed with the verb.
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