“The Mysteries of Worship in Islam” is a comprehensive translation of ‘Ihya-Ulum-Id-Din’ based on worship, the great authentic work of Imam Al-Ghazzali. Edwin Elliot calverley being an eminent scholar has described all the eminent scholar has lying in Al-Ghazzali’s Ihya. He endeavoured to present a clear expression by giving in different headings. All Arabic terms are presented in English according to their original propunciation as far as possible. For clearance of prayer-position the translator has given an Analytical Table in his introduction. All the difficult and mysterious items have been described in footnotes. In the ‘Appendix a table of the number of Rak’ ahs has been given to make easy and comprehensive the way of worship.
Nod doubt the translator will have to suffer from numerous difficulties in his work. If this book helps to disclose the mysterious ways of worship in Islam that will be the success of translator.
The Muslims use the term ‘ibadah to express the relationship and attitude of a creature as slave to Allah, his Lord, Who formed him and therefore owns him. This relationship finds outward expression in acts of obedience, worship and devotion. Some of these acts are commanded; others are recommended; while still others are voluntary.
Chief among those that arc commanded are fasting, pilgrimage to Mecca, payment of the quarter-tithe and the salah, Salah here means a specific ceremony of ibadah, opened with the expression “Allah is greater,” and dosed with the Salutation. To designate this special ceremony the term “Worship” will be used, rather than “prayer,” simply because it is a ceremonial service.
It is chiefly by means of the salah, Worship, that the prayer and devotional life is expressed in Islam, both in public and private worship. Other expressions of Worship and devotion consists in al-tilawah, the Recital of the Qur’an; al-du’d’, the offering of Supplication; al-dhikr, the Invocation of the Names of Allah and the mentioning of His Qualities; al-wird, the Recital of a section f the Qur’an or other religious work; al-hizb, a Portion of the Qur’an or other devotional writing used as a petition, together with other forms of communion with Allah to be mentioned later.....
The Performance of the Worship
The performance of the Worship is preceded by certain necessary acts. These include the cleansing of the body, clothing and place of Worship. Book Three of the First Quarter of the Ihya’, describes the proper performance of these operations. After m follows the covering of the person from the navel to the knees, when the worshipper is a man. These acts are the prerequisites of the Worship.
When they are finished the man is ready for the Worship. He assumes (1) (the Same numbering of the parts of the Worship will be repeated in the Analytical Table, pp. xiii-xv) the Standing Position, facing the qiblah with his feet apart, his head preferably inclined, and his gaze upon his place of Worship.
Then he says (2) the Basmalah: “In the name of Allah, the Merciful and Compassionate One,” He says immediately after it (3) the Ta’awwudh, Seeking for Refuge: “Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of mankind, the Possessor of mankind, the God of mankind, from the evil of the Whisperer, the one who goes back, who whispers in the breasts of mankind, of the jinn and mankind” (Qur’an, cxiv.).
Then, if he expects anyone to Worship behind him, he says (4) the Call to Worship: “Allah is greater! Allah is greater! I witness. There is no god but Allah! I witness, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah! Come to the Worship! Come to Prosperity; Allah is greater!”
Instead of the two phrases, “Come to the Worship! Come to Prosperity,” called the Hai’alatain, the follower says: “There is no night and no strength but in Allah!”
In the Morning Worship the mu’adhdhin adds, after the lai’alatain, the Tathunb: “The Worship is better than sleep!”
The follower thereupon responds: “You have spoken truly!
You have acted rightly! You have given good advice!”
After the Call to the Worship, the mu’adhdhin, or the worshipper himself if he is alone, says (5) the Institution: “The Worship is instituted!”
The follower responds: “May Allah institute it and continue it as long as the heavens and the earth continue!”
He also adds: “O Allah! by the right of this complete Call and Worship instituted, grant Muhammad mediation and excellence, and elevate him to the praiseworthy station which Thou didst promise him: Thou dost not violate a promise!”
These items, except the Standing Position, constitute the Introduction to the Worship, and are not considered to be parts of the Worship itself. The Worship proper begins with (6) the Intention: “I perform at its proper time the Prescribed Noon Worship to Allah.”
The statement of Intention must be appropriate to the Worship presented; cf. pp. 21-22 of Translation. The Intention is made in the heart, according to al-Ghazzali. As soon as it is present in his heart, the worshipper (7) Raises the Hands, until the tips of the fingers are opposite the tops of the ears, with the palms toward the qiblah, Resting them there a moment, he begins (8) the Takbir, and then lowers his hands, placing the left just above the navel, and the right on the left, with the index-and next finger along the left forearm, and the others grasping the wrist. This Takbir is called the taharrum, and also the takbirat al-ihram, because it forbids to the worshipper what was previously allowable, that is, he enters upon a time sacred to Allah, when only certain words and acts are allowable, and all others, at other times permissible, are now forbidden. The Takbir consists of the words: “Allah is greater!”
It is said by the follower only audibly enough for himself to hear, and it is said after the imam finishes saying it. It is immediately followed by (9) the Opening Supplication, which is so called because it is the supplication with which the Worship is begun after the Takbir. It is as. follows: “Allah is greater indeed! Much praise belongs to Allah! O the praise of Allah, early and late! I have turned my face to Him Who divided the heavens and the earth, as a Hanif, and I am not one of the associators; my Worship and my devotion, my time of living and of dying belong to Allah, the Lord of the .worlds, Who has no associate; and that I am commanded, and I am one of the Muslims.”
More may be added to this. In the same position he says (10) the Ta’awwudh, the Seeking for Refuge: “I seek refuge in Allah from the pelted Satan!”
Then he recites (11) the Fatihah, beginning with the Basmalah: “In the name of Allah, the Merciful and Compassionate One. Praise belongs to Allah, the Lord of the worlds, the Merciful Compassionator, Possessor of the Judgment Day! Thee do we Worship and of Thee do we ask aid! Guide us ‘into the Straight Way, the Way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed favour, not of those against whom there is anger, nor of those going astray!”
It is recited audibly when alone, in the Morning, Sunset and Evening Worships. This is followed by the audible utterance of (12) the Ta’min: “Amin!”
Then he recites (13) the Surah, consisting of three or more verses of the Qur’an. At the Noon Worship the eighty-fifth ‘Surah may be used, as follows: “By the sky having towers! By the Day promised! By a Seeing One, and one seen!” etc.
That finishes the Recital. The Bowing comes next. This he does by (14) Raising the Hands, and simultaneously saying (15) the Takbir: “Allah is greater!”
At the same time he performs (16) the Bowing, placing his palms on his knees, which are kept straight, and making his back, neck and head to be in line, level. In this position he recites, three times or, if alone, seven or ten times, (17) the Tasbih, or Praise: “O the praise of my great Lord!”
Then (18) he Rises to the Standing Position; (19) Raising his Hands; and says (20) the Tasmi’: “Allah hearkens to anyone who says His praise!”
He remains quiet a moment in this standing position.
The remaining quiet or composed is called the tuma’innah.
While in this position he adds to the Tasmi’. “O our Lord! Thine is the praise to the fullness of the heavens and the earth, and to the fullness of whatever else Thou wilt!”
This may be lengthenep still more in the Worships of the Tasbih, the Praise (see pp. 156 of the Translation) and of the Kusuf, Eclipse (See pp. 146 ff. of the Translation) and of the Prescribed Morning Worship. Then he lowers himself to the ground, saying (21) the Takbir: “Allah is greater!” until he completes (22) the Prostration, by placing hi-, knees, hands and face on the ground. In this position he says, three or more times (23) the Tasbih: “0 the praise of my Lord, the Most High!”
Then he (24) Raises his Head, saying (25) the Takbir: “Allah is greater!”
He then sits on his left foot, with his hands on his thighs, and makes (26) Seven Supplications: “0 my Lord I Forgive me! Have mercy on me! Apportion provision for me! Guide me! Help me. Preserve me in health and pardon me!”
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