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Practical Aspects in Teaching of Science

Practical Aspects in Teaching of Science
$29.00
Item Code: NAW114
Author: Janardan Prasad
Publisher: KANISHKA PUBLISHERS
Language: English
Edition: 2008
ISBN: 8173913080
Pages: 224
Cover: HARDCOVER
Other Details: 8.50 X 5.50 inch
weight of the book: 0.38 kg
About the Book

In order to implement the present knowledge of educational psychology and philosophies of education, knowledge of the subject is insufficient preparation for the important responsibility of teaching science. It is necessary to have training in the best procedures -which have been found. to be efficient.

This book is an improvement over the previous books in that the latest laboratory techniques and use of educational technology have been added.

About the Author

Janardan Prasad has a long experience of teaching and research in the Department of Education, University of Delhi. He did his M.A. in Education from the University of Delhi.

He has been contributing to research journals regularly and has attended many national and international seminars and workshops in the field of education.

Preface

As knowledge has increased, techniques of teaching science have likewise improved. Likewise, in the profession of. teaching, specialized and improved techniques are necessary in addition to the mastery of subject matter. There are certain principles and procedures which are applicable to the teaching of all. subject areas, but efficient teaching of the individual subject fields necessitates specialized techniques which are peculiarly adapted to specific areas of instruction. In the field of science we find that the use of the laboratory, certain types of directed study, and source materials require methods of teaching which are different from those employed successfully in other subject areas.

The special methods of teaching science have been developed in the developed countries of the West. We are indebted to them for making use of these methods and techniques. Heuristic method of teaching science has been very popular, but now with the availability of educational technology and media development, great strides have been made in the teaching of science.

In order to secure a reliable evaluation of the accomplishments of a pupil during a unit in the science subject, it is necessary to make evaluation of the component parts of a unit such as the individual problems in the unit, and the unit examination, also it is necessary to make the unit grade a composite of these measures. Grading of the individual problems in a unit may be evaluated on a subjective basis. The judgement may be made more reliable by grading each part of the problem assignment. These factors have been given a special attention in the book.

The editor gratefully acknowledges the assistance taken from the University Grants Commission sources and the National Council of Education Research and training.

Introduction

Need for Techniques in Science Teaching

Specialized techniques are necessary to ensure efficient rendering of service by our professions and technical trades. Many of these methods of practice are a result of years of intensive evaluation and study, utilizing the outcome of research, critical observation, and trial and error. As knowledge has increased, techniques likewise have improved.

In the area of medicine, for example, clinical practice occupies an important place in the training of a medical practitioner before the M.D. degree is awarded and a license is granted for offering his services to the public. In the profession of law, techniques in court procedure make up a large part of the training which the young lawyer must have before he is admitted to the bar.

Likewise, in the profession of teaching, specialized and improved techniques are necessary in addition to the mastery of subject matter. There are certain principles and procedures which are applicable to the teaching of all subject areas, but efficient teaching of the individual subject fields necessitates specialized techniques which are peculiarly adapted to specific areas of instruction. In the field of science we find that the use of the laboratory, certain types of directed study, and source materials require methods of teaching which are different from those employed successfully in other subject areas.

In order to implement the present knowledge of educational psychology and the philosophies of education, knowledge of the subject is insufficient preparation for the important responsibility of teaching science. It is necessary to have training in the best procedures which have been found to be efficient.

Factors Which Make Techniques Important

It has been realized that the changes taking place in the secondary school population during the last generation are the primary reason why improved methods of teaching are needed to serve these adolescents. Practically the total population of secondary school age is attending school at the present time. Instead of being a select group of pupils whose primary objective in attending the secondary school is preparation for college and the professions, a large proportion of the present school population is composed of pupils of low ability. The range of ability has been greatly increased, extending from pupils having an I.Q. of less than 80 to those with an IQ. of 140 or more. In large groups, caring for the individual needs of pupils with such diverse abilities and interests necessitates efficient techniques. Granting that bright pupils learn in spite of the teacher or method employed, we know that greater degrees of growth can be achieved by them if opportunities that challenge their best abilities are provided. Likewise, pupils in the lower ability areas can be guided toward greater achievements by means of scientifically conceived methods which are best suited to their capacities.

A second factor which points to the need for training in improved procedures in science teaching, and other areas as well, is the fact that teachers tend to teach as they have been taught, — unless they have learned more appropriate methods during their training period.

**Contents and Sample Pages**









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