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Books > Ayurveda/Healing > Ayurveda > Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants (Set of 14 Volumes)
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Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants (Set of 14 Volumes)
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Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants (Set of 14 Volumes)
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Description
Volume 1

Edition: 2003

Foreword

It is being globally recognized that medicinal plants play a significant role in providing health benefits to human beings. The increase in the demand for plant based medicines and their eventual commercialization has brought about a major shift in their status from providing strictly individually tailored hand picked plant products based health care to availability of over the counter health products. But global acceptance of Indian plant-based drugs is still low. Non-availability and/or inadequacy of quality standards is perhaps the single most important factor responsible for it. International agencies like World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), International Centre for Science and High Technology (ICS) and Asia Pacific Centre for Transfer Technology (APCTT) have also emphasized on the need of ensuring quality control of medicinal plant drugs by applying suitable standards employing modern techniques. But this is unlikely to be achieved until the quality of the base material for formulating the herbal products is assured. The complex composition of medicinal plant drugs, has posed a major challenge for quality control.

Standardization of the presumed active constituents of the drug is perhaps not the best approach; as only in few cases does the drug-activity depend upon a single component. In fact, it is the outcome of synergistic effect of several active compounds and accompanying inert substances. It is thus, reasonable to use the naturally occurring wholesome medicinal plant material for standardization. A number of factors such as age and origin of the plant, time of its collection, method of drying, garbling, storage etc. influence the proportion of various components in the plant material. The analytical limits therefore, cannot be expected to be as precise as for the single pure synthetic drug.

Inspite of these and other inherent difficulties, quality standards for the medicinal plants used in India are necessary for the drugs and formulations produced from them to be of adequate quality, safety and efficacy for their wide acceptance.

In response to this need, the Indian Council of Medical Research has taken the initiative to lay down quality standards of important medicinal plants, as per WHO guidelines. Reputed institutes have been involved to evolve these standards. Vital has resulted in the production of this volume, which is first in the series and deals with 32 medicinal plants. I trust this volume will be of immense help to medicinal plant based data generated at these institutes and compilation of the requisite information from literature drug industry, drug analytical laboratories, drugs control authorities, academicians and researchers engaged in work on medicinal plant drugs.

I deeply appreciate the efforts of the Chairman and the members of the various Committees viz., Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force, the Technical Review Committee. The work would not have been possible but for the important role played by the collaborative Institutions.

Despite certain limitations that these standards may have, it is a step towards improving the quality of finished product. Better quality would inevitably help in raising the acceptance of Indian plant based health products.

 

Preface

Interest in medicinal plants has been overwhelming in the recent times especially as an important source of medication/health care in Indian Systems of Medicine. Currently, the global market for medicinal plants has been estimated around US $62 billion and the demand is growing rapidly. While, the domestic trade in herbal drug preparations used in Indian Systems of Medicine is to the tune of Rs. 4200 crores per annum, the annual export from India to the tune of Rs. 400 crores only.

In our country nearly 7,500 plant species are being used in the formulation of medicinal plant-based health care products. The quality and the efficacy of these preparations depend largely on the quality of the raw material used. The increase in the reported incidence of toxicity, indiscriminate use and easy availability of herbal preparations and food supplements makes it imperative to lay down standards which could ensure their quality, safety and efficacy. Our plant based drug industry too needs quality parameters for medicinal plants for the production of quality ensured standardized herbal drugs.

Evolving methods of standardization and establishing quality control parameters for herbal drugs calls for a well planned approach for establishing standards and this can be achieved only through systematic evaluation of the plant material using modern analytical techniques including chromatographic ones.

With this background, the ICMR took an initiative for development of standards of selected medicinal plants commonly used in India for their therapeutic value. A Task Force was constituted, list of plants drawn and the work was carried out at four institutions viz., B.Y. Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development Centre, Ahmedabad; National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow; National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, S.A.S. Nagar (Mohali) and Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Thiruvanthapuram. The work done at these institutes has resulted in preparation of monographs on 32 plants encompassing detailed pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies coupled with other information based on literature review.

The publication is the first volume in the series on standards of medicinal plants and is expected to be useful for the herbal drug industry/pharmacies, practitioners of indigenous systems of medicine, academicians, researchers and health professionals. The regulatory authorities may also find it useful as a reference. Preparation of the second volume in the series is in progress.

 

Introduction

Plant based medicines have been used by mankind since time immemorial. According to the report of World Health Organization, over 80 per cent of the world population relies on the traditional systems of medicine, largely plant based, to meet their primary health care. The effectiveness of these systems, in turn, mainly depends upon the proper use and sustained availability of genuine raw material. Global resurgence of the interest in herbal drugs has led to the need of their mass production which perhaps was not even contemplated by the traditional medicine practitioners who prepared and dispensed the medicine on a personal and individual basis. Largescale production of medicinal plant products necessitated the availability of standards to ensure their quality, efficacy and safety.

Furthermore, limited availability of medicinal plants of consistent quality has been perhaps one of the toughest impediment for reliable biological, pharmacological, chemical and clinical evaluation besides their use in health care. Lack or inadequacy of quality standards has been a discouraging factor for many potential herbal drug manufacturers and also a handicap in regulating the herbal drug market.

Against this backdrop, the Indian Council of Medical Research initiated a programme for laying down quality standards of about 200 medicinal plants widely used in India. Special emphasis has been laid on various chromatographic techniques including thin layer chromatographic, fingerprinting, HPTLC, HPLC, and GLC wherever needed. The studies complemented by literature backup has resulted in the preparation of monographs on 32 individual medicinal plants which have been covered in the present first volume. The work on the remaining plants is in progress.

The contents of monograph on each plant have been systematically described as follows:

Botanical name with authority, synonym, part(s) used, geographical source.

Other names of the drug in different languages.

Part(s) of the plant used as drug.

Macroscopic and microscopic description of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characters of the part(s) used along with colour photographs of the plant, part(s) used and illustrated diagrams of histological features.

Chemical constituents, structure of important chemical constituents. Identity test based on different chemical groups and TLC / GLC fingerprint profiles along with marker compound(s).

Assay/analytical method (using HPLC, HPTLC, GLC etc.) for the analysis of marker compounds along with detailed procedure and chromatograms.

Other quantitative standards include foreign matter, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, ethanol-soluble extractive, water-soluble extractive and loss on drying.

Adulterants/substitutes if any, giving details of distinguishing features from the genuine drug.

Important pharmacological and clinical studies in brief, as reported in the literature.

Therapeutic category as mentioned in Ayurvedic texts or as evidenced by clinical trials and reported in literature.

Safety aspects as mentioned in Ayurvedic texts or as reported in publications on pharmacological/toxicological aspects.

Dosage as mentioned in Ayurvedic texts or as reported in other scientific publications.

Complete references of the work cited.

This is followed by relevant appendices giving methods for evaluation of crude drugs (appendix I), phytochemical evaluation of raw material (appendix II), methods for isolation of markers (appendix III), drying and storage of raw material (appendix IV), pesticides, residues and microbial contamination (appendix V) and plant allocated to various institutions (appendix VI). Indices on botanical names, chemical constituents and other names of plants have been given at the end.

 

Volume 2

Edition: 2005

 

Foreword

There has been global resurgence' of interest in the area of medicinal plant health care products, as a result of which, a number of national and international organizations such as World Health Organization, European Scientific Cooperative, German Commission E, Japanese and Chinese organizations, have taken initiative to prepare and publish monographs on medicinal plants. All such monographs lay special emphasis on quality standards of the plant material. India is one of the twelve mega biodiversity centres rich in medicinal and aromatic plants occurring in diverse ecosystems. Out of the 45,000 known plant species nearly 1500 plant species are being used in the Indian System of Medicine. In the draft of the National policy on the Indian System of Medicine, priority is being given to research on standardization besides pharmacology, toxicology and clinical trials of herbal drugs.

The Indian Council of Medical Research took initiative to lay down quality standards of important medicinal plants involving reputed research institutes. The collection of monographs published in 2003 as "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants Vol. 1" was the outcome of these efforts. The current publication is the second volume of the above series. We are happy to note that the first volume was greatly appreciated and received well by all those involved in different activities related to herbal drugs in India and abroad. I hope that just like the first volume, the second volume will also be of great help to medicinal plant based drug industry, drug regulatory authorities, researchers and academicians involved in work on medicinal plants.

I greatly appreciate the efforts of the Chairman and the members of the Scientific Advisory Group, Task Force and the Technical Review Committees and the contributions made by the participating institutions.

 

Preface

Worldwide interest in multifaceted potential of plants has resulted into gradual transition of the traditional medicine from being a personalized one to the present state where the plant based drugs are commercially produced in large scale and sold as OTC drugs or as prescription medicines. Furthermore in India where almost 90 percent of the raw material for herbal medicinal products is procured by the industry from wild sources, there is every possibility of vast variation of chemical constituents in the material collected from different geographical sources. In addition there is a possibility of deliberate adulteration or substitution in the genuine raw material. In such a scenario proper quality control of the herbal raw material as well as finished products becomes essential. Thus, the need for development of quality standards and preparation of monographs there on, cannot be over emphasized.

In an effort to address this problem, the Indian Council of Medical Research initiated a programme on evolving standards for the medicinal plants involving reputed research institutes in the country. Under this programme the first volume of "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering 32 plants was published in 2003. This is the second volume in the series and contains quality standards of another set of 32 medicinal plants. As with the first volume, the second volume in the series is also expected to be well received and useful to the herbal drug industry, practitioners of Indigenous System of Medicine, academicians, researchers and health professionals including regulatory authorities.

Preparation of the third volume in the series is in progress.

 

Introduction

World Health Organization promotes and encourages the use of herbal medicinal products in the national health care programmes of various countries as 3/4th of the world population relies on traditional systems of medicine, largely medicinal plant based, to meet their primary health care needs. Lack of or inadequacy of quality standards of the herbal material has been an impediment in the wider acceptance of the herbal medicinal products as well as a discouraging factor for many reputed herbal drug manufacturers and also a handicap in regulating herbal drug market. In an effort to address this problem, the Indian Council of Medical Research initiated work on the preparation of standards for herbal raw material involving several reputed research institutes in the country. This endeavour resulted in publication of the first volume on "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" in 2003. In continuing efforts in this direction, this is the second volume in the series containing monographs on the raw material from 32 medicinal plants. The approach being followed for executing this work is as follows:

Authentic plant material is procured from three geographical locations. Details of pharmacognostic features, quantitative standards and phytochemical profiles are generated by the participating institutions. Information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, adulterants/substitutes, therapeutic claims, safety aspects and dosage is derived from the published literature and classical books. Literature search for each plant is made, reviewed and only the relevant information is incorporated from original articles.

From the information so generated, each monograph is compiled, and presented in a uniform format, under the following heads:

The monograph starts with the part used, botanical name with authority, synonyms and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder and illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: The structures of important compounds and active principles (if known) are given. While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available. The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, viz., major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts are given. Under the second category of chemical constituents which are present in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Detailed description for the analysis of marker compound is given. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated, e.g., total alkaloids, total hydroxyanthracene derivatives, etc. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: Extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Information is provided whereever available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute. Clinical trials, wherever conducted have been mentioned.

Major Therapeutic Claims: These are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug mentioned with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dosage: Is taken from the standard Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the histology of the drug, and TLC finger print details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

Relevant appendices are added at the end of the volume, giving methods for the evaluation of the crude drugs (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation of raw material (Appendix II), methods for isolation of markers (Appendix III), drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for development of quality standards (Appendix VI). Indices on botanical names, chemical constituents and names of plants in other languages have been given at the end.

 

Volume 3

Edition: 2005

Foreword

Man's dependence on plants for health care is as old as the existence of the mankind on this planet. Since the advent of modern medicine, plants have also become a source of important phytopharmaceuticals and lead molecules with unique chemical structures and mechanism of action. Over the last few decades alternative medicine, which is essentially plant based, has experienced a remarkable and steady increase all over the world. This has generated a multifaceted interest in the medicinal plants, which includes the sourcing of the raw material (through cultivation or from wild populations), preparation of formulations, multimarker based phytochemical evaluation for standardization, pharmacological, toxicological and clinical evaluation to establish efficacy and safety, of single drugs as well as polyherbal formulations and their large scale manufacture and marketing. This activity has necessitated the requirement of good quality of raw material. Consequently it became important to establish quality parameters for the herbal raw material. In the recent years many national and international bodies have been preparing and publishing monographs on medicinal plants defining quality parameters necessary to maintain quality.

In India, with its age old traditional systems of medicine and rich treasure of medicinal plants, about 1500 plant species are being used in the Indian System of Medicine, and many more plants in the folk and tribal medicine. The Indian Council of Medical Research took initiative to lay down standards for herbal raw material from important medicinal plants, involving reputed research institutes of India. An outcome of these efforts has been the publication of two volumes of monographs on the "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants". The current publication is the third volume of this series. The first two volumes received the appreciation of all those involved in different activities related to medicinal plants, We hope that the third volume also will be received well and be of help to herbal drug industry, drug regulatory authorities, researchers and academicians. I greatly appreciate the efforts of the Chairman and members of the Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force, the Technical Review Committee, investigators and the research institutions which contributed to the significant task of developing quality standards.

 

Preface

The interest in and the demand for the plant based drugs increased in the last few decades, and this led to large scale commercial production of both classical and proprietary herbal formulations in the country. As a result, the demand for herbal raw material also increased. The raw material is being procured from wild as well as cultivated sources. Several factors are known to influence the quality of the herbal raw material. Hence, to maintain quality and to ensure efficacy, quality parameters are to be defined.

Sensing this need, the Indian Council of Medical Research initiated a programme to develop monographs on important Indian medicinal plants involving several research institutes and laboratories of the country. The monographs so evolved are being published under a series. So far two volumes of "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" have been published which contain monographs on 32 medicinal plants each. This is the third volume in the series with monographs on 40 medicinal plants. We expect these monographs to be of use to the herbal drugs manufacturers, regulatory authorities, academicians, researchers and those interested in medicinal plants.

Work on preparing monographs on raw materials from many more medicinal plants is in progress.

 

Introduction

Multifaceted potential of medicinal plants, as also the fact that about three fourth of the world population relies on traditional systems of medicine to meet their primary health care needs, has generated a global interest in the area of medicinal plants. Various international agencies like World Health Organization have been emphasizing on the importance and need of standardization of herbal raw material. Lack of or an inadequate quality standard of raw material has been one of the major impediments in wider acceptance of herbal drugs. It has also been a discouraging factor for many herbal drug manufacturers besides being a handicap in regulating herbal drug market. In an effort to address this problem, the Indian Council of Medical Research initiated work on the preparation of standards for herbal raw material involving several reputed research institutes in the country. This endeavour resulted in publication of the two volumes on "Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants". In continuing efforts in this direction, this is the third volume in the series containing monographs on the raw material from 40 medicinal plants. The approach being followed for executing this work is as follows:

Authentic plant material is procured from three geographical locations. Details of pharmacognostic features, quantitative standards and phytochemical profiles are generated by the participating institutions. Information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity adulterants/substitutes, therapeutic claims, safety aspects and dosage is derived from the published literature and classical books. Literature search for each plant is made, reviewed and only the relevant information is incorporated from original articles.

From the information so generated, each monograph is compiled, and presented in a uniform format, under the following heads:

The monograph starts with the part used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, geographical source and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, viz.; major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts are given. Under the second category, the chemical constituents which are either present in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed. The structures of important compounds and active principles (if known) are given. While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information 0 specific compounds is available.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability. TLC is found to be practically more feasible and suitable to resolve most of the components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Detailed description for the analysis of marker compound is given. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated, e.g., total alkaloids, etc. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: Extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Information is provided where ever available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute. Clinical trials, wherever conducted have been mentioned.

Major Therapeutic Claims: These are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug mentioned with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dosage: Is taken from the standard Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC finger print details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

Relevant appendices are added at the end of the volume, giving methods for the evaluation of the crude drugs (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation of raw material (Appendix II), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix III), drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for development of quality standards (Appendix VI). Indices on botanical names, chemical constituents and other names of the plants have been given at the end.

 

Volume 4

Edition:2006

Foreword

The growing worldwide interest in medicinal plants and fast expanding global market in the last two decades, has necessitated for quality ensured herbal drugs. Further, the increase in the incidence of toxicity reported due to the indiscriminate use of herbal preparations available over the counter and as food supplements make it important to ensure their safety and efficacy. Therefore, in the present business and industrial scenario, and considering the interest and faith that people have on herbal products, the need for their standardization cannot be over emphasized. The safety and efficacy of herbal preparations depend largely on the quality of the raw material used.

In this backdrop, ICMR took initiative in evolving quality standards for plants most widely used as raw material in Indian systems of medicine, especially those of Ayurveda. Several reputed institutions are involved in this endeavour. The efforts have so far resulted in bringing out three volumes of Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants carrying monographs on 104 plants. The current publication with Monographs on 32 plants is fourth in the series. I do hope the present volume shall also be received well with all those concerned with medicinal plants. The commendable efforts and co-operation of the Chairman and the members of Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force, the Technical Review Committee as also the investigators and the research institutions in bringing out this publication are appreciable.

 

Preface

Medicinal plants constitute one of the richest bioresource for herbal drugs, food supplements, natural cosmetics, complimentary alternate medicines, phytoconstituents of industrial significance and lead molecules for the development of Allopathic drugs. A number of countries including Germany, France, Canada, USA, China, etc. are registering standardized medicinal plant extracts of proven clinical efficacy and safety as herbal drug preparations or food supplements. Inspite of the fact that India has a vast resource of medicinal plants, we are unable to exploit the growing world market to the required extent because we do not have a very satisfactory system of their quality control and registration. Therefore, it becomes absolutely essential to have quality standards of the raw material.

In this direction, in the year 2000 the ICMR initiated work on quality standards of Indian medicinal plants, involving laboratories of reputed institutes of the country. Three volumes of "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering standards of 104 medicinal plants have already been published. We expect that this fourth volume like the earlier three volumes will also be of interest to the herbal drug industry, practitioners of the Indigenous Systems of Medicine, academicians, researchers, health professionals and regulatory authorities.

 

Introduction

In the National Policy on the Indian Systems of Medicine (ISM) by the Department of A YUSH, priority is being given to research on standardization, pharmacology, toxicology and clinical trails of ISM drugs. In all these studies one important common factor, which can be called the lifeline, is the quality, especially of the raw material, and the crux is the inavailability of methods for the quality assessment.

Currently, the herbal drug preparation itself is regarded as the active substance. Hence the reproducibility of the total configuration of herbal drug constituents is important, and the TLC/GLC/ HPLC fingerprint profiles will serve as guiding line to the phytochemical profile of the drug in ensuring the quality, while quantification of the marker compound/s would serve as an additional parameter in assessing the quality of the sample.

As a part of its ongoing programs, Medicinal Plants Unit of the Indian Council of Medical Research has been bringing out a series of publications on the quality standards of important medicinal plants used in the traditional medicine. This is the fourth volume in the series, "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" containing 32 monographs. Several national institutions have been participating in this national endeavour and just as in the first three volumes, the following guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards for the plants included in this volume.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three different geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The results of experiments conducted and the compiled data are subjected to careful scrutiny by the experts of the Technical Review Committee.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

The monograph starts with the part used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, viz., major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts are given. Under the second category, the chemical constituents which are either present in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed. As far as possible the chemical constituents are grouped together on the basis of clan of compounds. The structures of important compounds and active principles (if known) are given. While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability. TLC is found to be practically more feasible and suitable to resolve most of the components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Detailed description for the analysis of marker compound is given. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: Extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Information is provided wherever available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original research articles published in journals of repute. Clinical trials, wherever conducted have been mentioned.

Major Therapeutic Claims: These are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug mentioned with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dosage: Is taken from the standard Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and / or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC fingerprint details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first three volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix T), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix II), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix Ill), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents and names of plants in other languages.

 

Volume 5

Edition:2008

Foreword

Resurgence of interest in the medicinal plants and their products all over the globe is evident from the rising figures of trade and marketing as well as extensive and intensive scientific publications in the national and international journals. In such a rising global market trend and scientific awareness of medicinal plant products, there exist many fold opportunities in various segments such as traditional medicines, home remedies, nutraceuticals, phytopharmaceuticals, natural drug molecules, gums, mucilages, natural dyes, insect repellants, insecticides, pesticides etc. There are a number of challenges in sustainable industrial exploitation of medicinal plants bioresource for all the segments mentioned. One of the major challenges is inadequacy of quality standards available for producing and maintaining quality and consistency of medicinal plant products. The Indian Council of Medical Research initiated the programme of developing quality standards of Indian medicinal plants in the year 2002. This endeavour yielded very fruit results evidenced by the publication of four volumes of Quality Standards of 136 medicinal plant. Under this continuing programme, this fifth volume comprising quality standards of another 34 Indian medicinal plants is being published. It's a commendable national effort at the appropriate time in the right direction. These quality standards will be of great help to all those engaged in developing various quality products from Indian medicinal plants.

 

Introduction

The medicinal plants have not only been known to be the backbone of all systems of medicine but have been finding extensive place in household remedies, nutraceuticals and cosmetics. In view of the wider acceptance of medicinal plant based products and fast expanding market globally, the quality of the raw material used particularly in the herbal drugs assume special significance in context of experimental studies, clinical trials and therapeutics. Further, the TLC/GLCIHPLC fingerprint profile, as also quantification of the marker compound serve as guiding line to the phytochemical profile of the drug in ensuring the quality.

Medicinal Plants Unit of the Indian Council of Medical Research has been instrumental in developing quality standards of medicinal plants through participation of various reputed institutions, and bringing out a series of publication entitled "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants". The present volume is 5th in this series and contain monographs on 34 plants.

The following major guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards and preparation of the monographs.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The experiments conducted and the compiled data is subjected to careful scrutiny by the experts of the scientific committee. The information incorporated in the monographs is further supported by the photographs of the plant, the part/s of the plant used, microscopic details, the TLC details, chromatograms, etc.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

Each monograph starts with the part(s) used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: Are given with the structures of important compounds and active principles (if known). While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available. The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, viz.; major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts. Under the second category of other chemical constituents which are in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles which have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability. TLC is found to be more practically feasible and suitable to resolve most of the components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Are described in detail for the analysis of marker compound. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: With respect to extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Are given wherever information is available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute. Clinical trials, wherever conducted have been mentioned.

Major Therapeutic Claims: Are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug is mentioned with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dosage: Is taken from the Standard Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC finger print details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first four volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix II), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix III), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents and names of plants in other languages.

 

Volume 6

Edition: 2008

 

Foreword

There has been global emphasis on the importance of standardization of herbal drugs particularly for delivering improved health care. The need for standardization has been recognized time and again world over at different global forums by various national and international agencies including WHO. Inadequacy or lack of standardization of raw material has been one of the most constraining factors in our ability to exploit the fast growing world market of herbal drugs to the required extent, despite India being credited with unique heritage of abundant biodiversity. These plant based drugs would be much more widely used nationally and internationally, with wider acceptance, for enhanced health care if the standardization provides creditability to the quality of the medicine used, In the time to come, only those countries with well established standards of herbal drugs can hope to exploit the worldwide growth in the use of herbal products.

It becomes imperative, therefore to have quality standards of the raw material used in various plant based products.

The Council's initiative to develop Quality Standards of Indian medicinal plants with major focus on diagnostic features, chromatographic profile, markers and overview of multidisciplinary information/data, shall be of importance and relevance for the herbal drug industry, researchers, health professionals, regulatory authorities, policy makers and others interested in the area of medicinal plants, The initiative may eventually help in development of quality assured safe herbal drugs for health care.

 

Preface

The medicinal plants have not only been known to be the backbone of all systems of medicine but have been finding extensive place in household remedies, nutraceuticals and cosmetics. In view of the wider acceptance of medicinal plant based products and fast expanding market globally, the quality of the raw materials used in the herbal drugs assumes special significance particularly in context of conducting experimental studies, clinical trials and their therapeutic value.

In this backdrop, the Medicinal Plants Unit of ICMR took initiatives in the year 2000 for developing Quality Standards of medicinal plants for more widely used raw materials. Several reputed institutions were involved.

The monographs are on the pattern of WHO guidelines and incorporate the diagnostic features, phytochemical studies including marker compound, information on pharmacological, clinical, toxicological aspects, dosage, adulterants/substitutes etc. The fingerprint profile (TLC/GLCIHPLC), as also quantification of the marker compound may serve as guiding line to the phytochemical profile of the drug in ensuring the quality.

As part of this initiative, 5 volumes incorporating Quality Standards of 170 medicinal plants have been published. The present volume is 6th in this series and contains quality standards of another 35 plants. These monographs are outcome of the ICMR programme carried out at Agharkar Research Institute, Pune; BV Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development Centre, Ahmedabad; Captain Srini vasa Murti Drug Research Institute for Ayurveda, Chennai; Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal and National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow.

It is hoped that the current volume like the previous volumes shall be useful to all those concerned with medicinal plants and their products.

 

Introduction

Lack of quality standards of the raw material has been one of the major lacuna in the wider acceptance of plant based drugs. Medicinal Plants Unit of the Indian Council of Medical Research has initiated a programme for the preparation of quality standards for herbal raw materials involving several research institutes of Country to address this problem. This programme has resulted in publication of five volumes on "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering 170 plants. The present volume is 6th in this series and contains monographs on 35 plants.

The following major guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards and preparation of the monographs.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The experiments conducted and the compiled data is subjected to careful scrutiny by the experts of the scientific committee. The information incorporated in the monographs is further supported by the photographs of the plant, the part/s of the plant used, microscopic details, the TLC details, chromatograms, etc.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

Each monograph starts with the part/s used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder, Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: Are given with the structures of important compounds and active principles (if known). While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available. The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, viz.; major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts. Under the second category of other chemical constituents which are in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles which have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability are given. TLC is found to be more practically feasible and suitable to resolve most of the components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Are described in detail for the analysis of marker compound. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: With respect to extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Are given wherever information is available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute. Clinical trials, wherever conducted have been mentioned.

Major Therapeutic Claims: Are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug is mentioned with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dose: Is taken from the Standard Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published. The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC finger print details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first five volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix II), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix ill), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents and names of plants in other languages.

 

Volume 7

Edition: 2008

 

Foreword

In recent years, the worldwide interest in herbal products has grown significantly particularly for delivering improved health care. With an increasing global demand for herbal medicines, it is necessary that the quality and the consistency of these drugs is maintained for their maximal efficacy. Inadequacy or lack of standardization of raw materials has been one of the most constraining factors in our ability to exploit the fast growing world market of herbal drugs to the required extent, despite India being credited with unique heritage of abundant biodiversity. These plant based drugs would be much more widely used both nationally and internationally, with wider acceptance, for enhanced health care if the standardization provides creditability to the quality of the medicine used.

It becomes imperative, therefore to have quality standards of the raw material used in various plant based products.

The council's initiative to develop Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants with major focus on diagnostic features, chromatographic profiles, markers and overview of multidisciplinary information/data, shall be of importance and relevance for the herbal drug industry, researchers, health professionals, regulatory authorities, policy makers and others interested in the area of medicinal plants. The initiative may eventually help in development of quality assured safe herbal drugs for health care.

I deeply appreciate the efforts of the Chairman, the members of the Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force, the Technical Review Committee, investigators and the research institutes who have contributed to the significant task of developing quality standards.

 

Preface

The medicinal plants have not only been known to be the backbone of all systems of medicine but have been finding extensive place in household remedies, nutraceuticals, phytochemicals, natural drug molecules, gums, mucilages, natural dyes, insecticides, pescticides and cosmetics. In view of the wider acceptance of medicinal plant based products and fast expanding market globally, the quality of the raw materials used in the herbal drugs assumes special significance particularly in context of conducting experimental studies, clinical trials and their respective therapeutic value.

In this backdrop, the Medicinal Plants Unit of ICMR took initiatives for developing Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants for more widely used raw materials. Several reputed institutions were involved.

The monographs are on the pattern of WHO guidelines and incorporate the diagnostic features, phytochemical studies including marker compound, information on pharmacological, clinical, toxicological aspects, dosage, adulterants/substitutes etc. The fingerprint profile (TLC/GLC/HPLC), as also quantification of the marker compound may serve as guiding line to the phytochemical profile of the ensuring the quality.

As part of this initiative, 6 volumes incorporating Quality Standards of 205 medicinal plant have been published. The present volume is T" in this series and contains quality standards of another 34 plant . These monographs are outcome of the ICMR programme carried out at Agharkar Research Institute, Pune; BV Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development Centre, Ahemdabad; Captain Srinivas Murti Drug Research Institute for Ayurveda, Chennai; Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal and National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow.

We hope that the current volume like the earlier six volumes shall be useful to all those concerned with medicinal plants and their products.

 

Introduction

Lack of quality standards of the raw material has been one of the major lacuna in the wider acceptance of plant based drugs. Medicinal Plants Unit of the Indian Council of Medical Research has initiated a programme for the preparation of quality standards for herbal raw' materials involving several research institutes of the country to address this problem. This programme has resulted in publication of six volumes on "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering 205 plants. The present volume is T" in this series and contains monographs on 34 plants.

The following major guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards and preparation of the monographs.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The experiments conducted and the compiled data is subjected to careful scrutiny by the experts of the scientific committee. The information incorporated in the monographs is further supported by the photographs of the plant, the part/s of the plant used, microscopic details, the TLC details, chromatograms, etc.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

Each monograph starts with the part(s) used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: Are given with the structures of important compounds and active principles (if known). While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available. The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, viz.; major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in, significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts are given. Under the second category, the chemical constituents which are either present in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profile which have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability are given. TLC i found to be more practically feasible and suitable to resolve mo t of the components of the extract under study. A far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Are described in detail for the analysis of marker compound. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: With respect to extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Are given wherever information is available and distinguishing feature is cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute. Clinical trials, wherever conducted have been mentioned.

Major Therapeutic Claims: Are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug along with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dose: Is taken from the classical Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC fingerprint details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first ix volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix 11), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix 11I), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents and names of plants in other languages.

 

Volume 8

Edition: 2010

 

Foreword

Medicinal plants play a significant role both in the developed and developing countries in providing health benefits to human beings. Over the last few decades alternative medicine, which is essentially plant based, has experienced a remarkable and steady increase all over the world. This has generated a multifaceted interest in the medicinal plants, which includes the sourcing of raw material (through cultivation or from wild populations), preparation of formulations, multi marker based phytochemical evaluation for standardization, molecular target/cell/enzyme based assays, pharmacological, toxicological and clinical evaluation to establish efficacy and safety, of single drugs as well as polyherbal formulations and their large scale manufacture and marketing. In such a scenario proper quality control of the herbal raw as well as the finished products becomes essential. This activity has necessitated the requirement of good quality of raw material, consequently it became important to establish quality parameters for the herbal raw material.

Indian Council of Medical Research has taken the initiative to lay down quality standards of important medicinal plants, as per WHO guidelines. Reputed institutes have been involved to evolve these standards. Vital data generated at these institutes and compilation of the requisite information from literature has resulted in the production of this volume, which is the eighth in the series and deals with 35 medicinal plants.

I deeply appreciate the efforts of the Chairman and the members of the various committees viz., Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force and the Technical Review Committee. The work would not have been possible but for the important role played by the collaborative Institutions.

Despite certain limitations, that these standards may have, it is a step towards improving the quality of finished products. Better quality would inevitably help in raising the acceptance of Indian plant based health care products. These quality standards will be of great help to all those engaged in developing various quality products from Indian medicinal plants.

 

Preface

In India almost 90 per cent of the raw material for herbal medicinal products is procured by the industry from wild sources, there is every possibility of vast variation of chemical constituents in the material collected from different geographical sources. In addition there is a possibility of deliberate adulteration or substitution in the genuine raw material. In such a scenario proper quality control of the herbal raw material as well as finished products becomes essential.

In an effort to address this problem, the ICMR initiated work on Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants, involving laboratories of reputed institutes of the country to generate requisite data as per prescribed format for preparing monographs.

Each monograph is titled with botanical nomenclature and incorporates diagnostic macro and microscopic features, phytochemical constituents, identification by chromatographic fingerprints (TLC/GLC/HPLC), quantitative determination of the phytochemical marker using marker compound, information on pharmacological, clinical, toxicological aspects, dose, adulterants/substitutes etc.

The present 8th volume in the series of already published 7 volumes contains quality standards of 35 plants. The present Monographs are outcome of the ICMR programme carried out at Agharkar Research Institute, Pune; B. V. Patel Pharmaceutical Education & Research Development Centre, Ahmedabad; Captain Srinivasa Murti Drug Research Institute for Ayurveda, Chennai; Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal; National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow; School of Natural Product Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata; University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh.

It is hoped that the current volume like the previous volumes will also be of interest to the herbal drug industry, practitioners of the Indigenous Systems of Medicine, academicians, researchers, health professionals and regulatory authorities.

 

Introduction

Lack of quality standards of the raw material has been one of the major lacuna in the wider acceptance of plant based drugs. Medicinal Plants Unit of the Indian Council of Medical Research has initiated a programme for the preparation of quality standards for herbal raw materials involving several research institutes of country to address this problem. This programme has resulted in publication of seven volumes on "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering 239 plants. The present volume is 8th in this series and contains monographs on 35 plants.

The following major guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards and preparation of the monographs.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The experiments conducted and the compiled data is subjected to careful scrutiny by the experts of the scientific committee. The information incorporated in the monographs is further supported by the photographs of the plant, the part/s of the plant used, microscopic details, the TLC details, chromatograms, etc.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

Each monograph starts with the parte(s) used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant. Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: Are given with the structures of important compounds and active principles (if known). While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available. The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, viz., major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts. Under the second category, the chemical constituents which are either present in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles which have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability are given. TLC is found to be more practically feasible and suitable to resolve most of the components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Are described in detail for the analysis of marker compound. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: With respect to extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Are given wherever information is available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological, clinical and other biological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute.

Major Therapeutic Claims: Are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug along with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dose: Is taken from the Classical Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC finger print details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first seven volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix II), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix III), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents and names of plants in other languages.

 

Volume 9

Edition: 2011

 

Foreword

One of the stumbling blocks in the popularity and wider acceptance of herbal drugs is the inadequacy or lack of standards. This is primarily attributed to the raw material which is not of desired quality, as required for reliable biological, pharmacological and clinical evaluation besides their use in health. Therefore, it is imperative to ensure proper safety and adequate standards along with accurate information available to those who wish to conduct research and commercialize the product outcome in this area of life science.

Indian Council of Medical Research has taken the initiative to lay down quality standards of important medicinal plants, as per WHO guidelines. Reputed institutes have been involved to evolve these standards. Vital data generated at these institutes and compilation of the requisite information from literature has resulted in the production of this volume, which is ninth in the series and deals with 35 medicinal plants.

I deeply appreciate the efforts of the chairman and the members of the various committees viz., Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force and the Technical Review Committee as also the important role played by the investigators and the collaborative Research Institutions in bringing out this publication.

The plant based drug industry, drug testing laboratories, academicians, researchers, health professionals and regulatory authorities will find this book useful. Despite certain limitations, that these standards may have, it is a step towards improving the quality of finished products.

 

Preface

In India where 90 per cent of the raw material for herbal medicinal products is procured by the industry from wild sources, there is every possibility of vast variation of chemical constituents in the material collected from different geographical sources. In addition there is a possibility of deliberate adulteration or substitution of the genuine raw material. In such a scenario proper quality control of the herbal raw material and finished products become essential. Thus, the need for development of quality standards and preparation of monographs thereof cannot be over emphasized.

In an effort to address this problem, ICMR initiated work on Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal plant, involving laboratories of reputed institutes of the country to generate requisite data as per prescribed format for preparing monographs.

Each monograph is titled with botanical nomenclature and incorporates diagnostic macro and microscopic features, phytochemical constituents, identification by chromatographic fingerprints (TLC/GLCIHPLC), quantitative determination of the phytochemical marker using marker compound and information on pharmacological, clinical, toxicological as well as parts used, dose, adulterants/ substitutes etc.

The present 9th volume in the series of already published 8 volumes contains quality standards of 35 plants. The monographs are outcome of the ICMR programme carried out at B.V. Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development Centre, Ahmedabad, Gujarat; Captain Sriniva a Murti Drug Research Institute for Ayurveda, Chennai, Tamil Nadu; Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal, Kerala and L. M. College of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

Better quality would inevitably help in raising the acceptance of Indian plant based health care products. It is hoped that the current volume like the previous volumes will be of interest to those engaged in developing various quality products from Indian Medicinal Plants.

Preparation of the tenth volume in the series is in progress.

 

Introduction

Lack of quality standards of the raw material has been one of the major lacuna in the wider acceptance of plant based drugs. Medicinal Plants Unit of the Indian Council of Medical Research has initiated a programme for the preparation of quality standards for herbal raw materials involving several research institutes of country to address this problem. This programme has resulted in publication of eight volumes on "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering 274 plants. The present volume is 9th in this series and contains monographs on 35 plants.

The following major guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards and preparation of the monographs.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution ofthe plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The experiments conducted and the compiled data is subjected to careful scrutiny by the experts of the scientific committee. The information incorporated in the monographs is further supported by the photographs of the plant, the part/s of the plant used, microscopic details, the TLC details, chromatograms, etc.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

Each monograph starts with the part(s) used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: Are given with the structures of important compounds and active principles (if known). While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available. The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, viz., major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts. Under the second category, the chemical constituents which are either present in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles which have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability are given. TLC is found to be more practically feasible and suitable to resolve most of the components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Are described in detail for the analysis of marker compound. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: With respect to extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Are given wherever information is available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological, clinical and other biological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute.

Major Therapeutic Claims: Are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug along with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dose: Is taken from the Classical Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC finger print details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first eight volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix II), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix III), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents and names of plants in other languages.

 

Volume 10

Edition: 2012

 

Foreword

The global interest in Medicinal Plants and the fast expanding world market during the last two decades have necessitated quality ensured herbal drugs. An increase in the incidence of toxicity reported due to indiscriminate use, deliberate or undeliberate adulteration/substitution and presence of contaminants in herbal preparations available over the counter and as food supplements make it important to ensure their quality, safety and efficacy. Quality standards of the Indian Medicinal Plants are necessary for the drugs and formulations produced from them to be of adequate quality, safety and efficacy for their wider acceptance and patients interest.

In response to this need, the Indian Council of Medical Research took initiative in the year 2001 to lay down quality standards of important Medicinal Plants as per WHO guidelines. The endeavour yielded very fruitful results evidenced by the publication of 9 volumes of Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants containing 309 monographs. Under this continuing programme, this tenth volume on Quality Standards of another 35 Indian Medicinal Plants is being published.

Despite certain limitations that these standards may have, it is a step towards improving the quality of finished products. Better quality would inevitably help in raising the acceptance of Indian plant based health care products. These quality standards will be of great help to all those engaged in developing various quality products from Indian Medicinal Plants.

I deeply appreciate the efforts of the chairman and the members of the various committees, viz., Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force and the Technical Review Committee as also the important role played by the investigators and the collaborative Research Institutions who have contributed to the significant task of developing quality standards.

 

Preface

Medicinal plants remain the main source of medicines for a large proportion of global population particularly in the developing world. In India the raw material for herbal medicinal products is mostly procured from wild sources, there is every possibility of vast variation of chemical constituents in the material collected from different geographical sources. There is also a possibility of deliberate adulteration and substitution in the genuine raw material. In such a scenario the proper quality control of the herbal raw material as well as the finished products become essential. Moreover, the quality of raw materials used in the herbal drugs assumes special significance particularly in context of conducting experimental studies, clinical trials and their therapeutic value.

The Medicinal Plants Unit of the Indian Council of Medical Research took initiatives for developing Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants for more widely used raw materials involving laboratories of reputed institutes in the country to generate requisite data as per prescribed format for preparing monographs. Each monograph is titled with botanical nomenclature and incorporates diagnostic macro- and microscopic features, phytochemical constitutents, identification by chromatographic fingerprints (TLCIGLCIHPLC), quantitative determination of the phytochemical marker using reference marker compound, information on pharmacological, clinical, toxicological aspects, dose, adulterants / substitutes etc.

The present 10th volume in the series contains quality standards of 35 medicinal plants. The monographs are outcome of the ICMR programme carried out at Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, Maharashtra; Captain Srinivasa Murti Drug Research Institute for Ayurveda, Chennai, Tamil Nadu; Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal, Kerala and L. M. College of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

As with the earlier nine volumes published, the tenth volume in the series is also expected to be well received and useful to the herbal drug industry, practitioners of Indigenous system of Medicine, academicians, researchers and health professionals including regulatory authorities.

Preparation of the Eleventh volume in the series is in progress.

 

Introduction

Lack of quality standards of the raw material has been one of the major lacuna in the wider acceptance of plant based drugs. Medicinal Plants U nit of the Indian Council of Medical Research has initiated a programme for the preparation of quality standards for herbal raw materials involving several research institutes of country to address this problem. This programme has resulted in publication of nine volumes on "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering 309 plants. The present volume is l O" in this series and contain monographs on 35 plants.

The following major guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards and preparation of the monographs.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The experiments conducted and the compiled data is subjected to careful scrutiny by the experts of the scientific committee. The information incorporated in the monographs is further supported by the photographs of the plant, the part/s of the plant used, microscopic details, the TLC details, chromatograms, etc.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

Each monograph starts with the part(s) used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: Are given with the structures of important compound and active principles (if known). While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available. The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, vir., major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts. Under the second category, the chemical constituents which are either present in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles which have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability are given. TLC is found to be more practically feasible and suitable to resolve most of the components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Are described in detail for the analysis of marker compound. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the case, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: With respect to extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Are given wherever information is available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological, clinical and other biological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute.

Major Therapeutic Claims: Are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug along with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dose: Is taken from the Classical Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC finger print detail and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first nine volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix II), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix ill), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents and names of plants in other languages.

 

Volume 11

Edition: 2013

Foreword

Medicinal plants play a significant role both in developed and developing countries in providing health benefits to human beings. Over the last few decades use of complimentary alternative medicines which are essentially plant based, have experienced a remarkable and steady increase in the world. This has generated a multifaceted interest in the medicinal plants including the sourcing of raw material, preparation of formulations, multimarker based phytochemical evaluation for standardization, molecular target based assays, pharmacological, toxicological and clinical evaluation to establish safety and efficacy of single plant drugs as well as polyherbal formulations and their large scale manufacture and marketing. In such a scenario proper quality controls of the herbal raw material as well as the finished products become essential. This activity has necessitated the requirement of good quality of raw material, consequently it became important to establish quality parameters of the raw material.

In response to this need, the Indian Council of Medical Research took initiative in the year 2001 to lay down quality standards of important Medicinal plants as per WHO guidelines. The endeavour yielded very fruitful results evidenced by the publication of 10 volumes of Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants containing 344 monographs. Under this continuing programme, this eleventh volume of Quality Standards of another 35 Indian Medicinal Plants is being published. This endevour may help in improving quality of plant based drugs in our country.

I deeply appreciate the efforts of the chairman and the members of the various committees, viz., Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force and the Technical Review Committee as also the important role played by the investigators and the Collaborative Research Institutions who have contributed to the significant task of developing quality standard monographs.

 

Preface

In India about 90 percent of raw material for herbal medicinal products is procured by the industry from wild sources, there is every possibility of vast variation of chemical constituents in the material collected from different geographical sources. In addition there is a possibility of deliberate adulteration or substitution in the genuine raw material. In such a scenario, proper quality control of the herbal raw material becomes essential.

In an effort to address this problem, the ICMR initiated work an Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants, involving laboratories of reputed institutes of the country to generate requisite data as per prescribed format for preparing monographs.

Each monograph is titled with botanical nomenclature and incorporates diagnostic macro- and microscopic features, phytochemical constituents, identification by chromatographic fingerprints (TLC/GLCIHPLCIHPTLC), quantitative determination of the phytochemical marker using reference phytochemical standards, information on pharmacological, clinical, toxicological aspects, dose, adulterants/substitutes etc.

The present 11th volume in the series of the already published 10 volumes contains quality standards of35 medicinal plants. The present publication is an outcome of the ICMR programme under which work was carried out at Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, Maharashtra; Captain Srinivasa Murti Drug Research Institute for Ayurveda and Siddha, Chennai, Tamil Nadu; Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal, Kerala; Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, Maharashtra; Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi and L. M. College of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

It is hoped that the current volume like the previous ones will also be of interest to the herbal drug industry, pharmaceutical and Ayurvedic academic/research institutes, practitioners of the Indigenous Systems of medicine and health professionals including regulatory authorities.

Preparation of the twelfth volume in the series is in progress.

 

Introduction

Lack of quality standards of the raw material has been one of the major lacuna in the wider acceptance of plant based drugs. Medicinal Plants Unit of the Indian Council of Medical Research has initiated a programme for the preparation of quality standards for herbal raw materials involving several research institutes of the country to address this problem. This programme has resulted in publication often volumes on "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering 344 plants. The present volume is 11th in this series and contains monographs on 35 plants.

The following major guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards and preparation of the monographs.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The experiments conducted and the compiled data is subjected to careful scrutiny by the experts of the scientific committee. The information incorporated in the monographs is further supported by the photographs of the plant, the part/s of the plant used, microscopic details, the TLC details, chromatograms, etc.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

Each monograph starts with the part(s) used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: Are given with the structures of important compounds and active principles (if known). While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available. The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, viz., major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts. Under the second category, the chemical constituents which are either present in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles which have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability are given. TLC is found to be more practically feasible and suitable to resolve most of the components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Are described in detail for the analysis of marker compound. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: With respect to extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Are given wherever information is available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological, clinical and other biological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute.

Major Therapeutic Claims: Are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug along with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dose: Is taken from the Classical Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC finger print details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first ten volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix II), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix III), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents and names of plants in other languages.

 

Volume 12

Edition: 2014

Foreword

Medicinal plants play a significant role both in developed and developing countries in providing health benefits to human beings. Over the last few decades plant based medicines have been steadily gaining importance in the world. This has generated a multifaceted interest in the medicinal plants, including sourcing of raw material, preparation of formulations, multimarker based phytochemical evaluation for standardization, molecular target based assays, pharmacological, toxicological and clinical evaluation to establish safety and efficacy of single drugs as well as polyherbal formulations and their large scale manufacture and marketing. In such a scenario proper quality control of the herbal raw as well as the finished products becomes essential. This activity has necessitated the requirement of good quality of raw material, consequently it became important to establish quality parameters of the raw materials.

In response to this growing need, Indian Council of Medical Research took initiative in the year 200 1 to lay down quality standards of important Medicinal plants as per WHO guidelines. The endeavour yielded very fruitful results evidenced by the publication of 11 volumes of Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants containing 379 monographs. Under this continuing programme, this twelfth volume of Quality Standards of another 35 Indian Medicinal Plants is being published.

Despite certain limitations that these standards may have, it is a step towards improving the quality of finished products.

I deeply appreciate the efforts of the chairman and the members of the various committees, viz., Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force and the Technical Review Committee as well as investigators and the various Research Institutions who have contributed to the significant task of developing quality standard monographs.

 

Preface

In India about 90 per cent of raw material for herbal medicinal products is procured by the industry from wild sources, there is every possibility of vast variation of chemical constituents in the material collected from different geographical sources. In addition there is a possibility of deliberate adulteration or substitution in the genuine raw material. In such a scenario proper quality control of the herbal raw material as well as finished products becomes essential.

In an effort to address this problem, ICMR initiated work on Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants, involving laboratories of reputed institutes of the country to generate requisite data as per prescribed format for preparing monographs.

Each monograph is titled with botanical nomenclature and incorporates diagnostic macro and microscopic features, phytochemical constituents, identification by chromatographic fingerprints (TLCIGLC/HPLC/HPTLC), quantitative determination of the phytochemical marker using marker compound, information on pharmacological, clinical, toxicological aspects, dose, adulterants/ substitutes etc.

The present 12th volume in the series of the already published 11 volumes contains quality standards of 35 plants. The present publication is an outcome of the ICMR programme under which work was carried out at Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, Maharashtra; Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal, Kerala; Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, Maharashtra and Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi.

It is hoped that the current volume like the previous volumes will also be of interest to the herbal drug industry, pharmaceutical and Ayurvedic academic/research institutes, practitioners of the Indigenous systems of medicine and health professionals including regulatory authorities.

Preparation of the thirteenth volume in the series is in progress.

 

Introduction

Lack of quality standards of the raw material has been one of the major lacuna in the wider acceptance of plant based drugs. Medicinal Plants Unit of the Indian Council of Medical Research has initiated a programme for the preparation of quality standards for herbal raw materials involving several research institutes of the country to address this problem. This programme has resulted in publication of eleven volumes on "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering 379 plants. The present volume is 12th in this series and contains monographs on 35 plants.

The following major guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards and preparation of the monographs.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The experiments conducted and the compiled data is subjected to careful scrutiny by the experts of the scientific committee. The information incorporated in the monographs is further supported by the photographs of the plant, the part/s of the plant used, microscopic details, the TLC details, chromatograms, etc.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

Each monograph starts with the part(s) used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: Are given with the structures of important compounds and active principles (if known). While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available. The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, viz., major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts. Under the second category, the chemical constituents which are either present in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles which have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability are given. TLC is found to be more practically feasible and suitable to resolve most of the components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Are described in detail for the analysis of marker compound. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: With respect to extractive values and ash values, these are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Are given wherever information is available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological, clinical and other biological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute.

Major Therapeutic Claims: Are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug along with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dose: Is taken from the Classical Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC finger print details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first eleven volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix II), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix III), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents, names of plants in other languages and a list of monographs published in the earlier volumes (Vols 1-11).

 

Volume 13

 

Preface

In India about 90 percent of raw material for herbal medicinal products is procured by the industry from wild sources, there is every possibility of vast variation of chemical constituents in the material collected from different geographical sources. In addition there is a possibility of deliberate adulteration or substitution in the genuine raw material. In such a scenario proper quality control of the herbal raw material as well as finished products becomes essential.

In an effort to address this problem, ICMR initiated work a Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants, involving laboratories of reputed institutes of the country to generate requisite data as per prescribed format for preparing monographs.

Each monograph is titled with botanical nomenclature and incorporates diagnostic macro- and microscopic features, phytochemical constituents, identification by chromatographic fingerprints, (TLC/GLC/HPL/HPTLC), quantitative determination of the phytochemical marker using marker compound, information on pharmacological, clinical, toxicological aspects, dose, adulterants/ substitutes etc.

The present 13th volume in the series of already published 12 volumes contains quality standards of 35 plants. The present publication is an outcome of the ICMR programme under which work was carried out at Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, Maharashtra; Captain Srinivasa Murti Drug Research Institute for Ayurveda, Chennai, Tamil Nadu; Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal, Kerala; Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, Maharashtra and Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi.

It is hoped that the current volume like the previous volumes will also be of interest to the herbal drug industry, pharmaceutical and Ayurvedic academic/research institutes, practitioners of the Indigenous systems of medicine and health professional including regulatory authorities.

Preparation of the fourteenth volume in the series is in progress.

 

Introduction

Lack of quality standards of the raw material has been one of the major lacuna in the wider acceptance of plant based drugs. Medicinal Plants Division of the Indian Council of Medical Research has initiated a programme for the preparation of quality standards for herbal raw materials involving several research institutes of country to address this problem. This programme has resulted in publication of twelve volumes on "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering 414 plants. The present volume is 13th in this series and contains monographs on 35 plants.

The following major guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards and preparation of the monographs.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The experiments conducted and the compiled data is subjected to careful scrutiny by the exerts of the scientific committee. The information incorporated in the monographs is further supported by the photographs of the plant, the parts of the plant used, microscopic details, the TLC details, chromatograms, etc.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

Each monograph starts with the part(s) used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: Are given with the structures of important compounds and active principles (if known). While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles which have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability are given. TLC is found to be more practically feasible and suitable to resolve most of the components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Are described in detail for the analysis of marker compound. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: With respect to extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Are given wherever information is available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological, clinical and other biological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute.

Major Therapeutic Claims: Are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug along with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dose: Is taken from the Classical Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC finger print details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first twelve volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix II), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix III), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents, names of plants in other languages and a list of monographs published in the earlier volumes (Vols 1-12).

 

Foreword

Medicinal Plants play a significant role both in developed and developing countries in providing health benefits to human beings. Over the last few decades plant based medicines have been steadily gaining importance in the world. This has generated a multifaceted interest in the Medicinal Plants, including sourcing of raw material, preparation of formulations, multimarker based phytochemical evaluation for standardization, molecular target based assays, pharmacological, toxicological and clinical evaluation to establish safety and efficacy of single drugs as well as polyherbal formulations and their large scale manufacture and marketing. In such a scenario proper quality control of the herbal raw as well as the finished products becomes essential. This activity has necessitated the requirement of good quality of raw material, consequently it became important to establish quality parameters of the raw materials.

In response to this growing need, Indian Council of Medical Research took initiative in the year 2001 to lay down quality standards of important Medicinal Plants as per WHO guidelines. The endeavour yielded very fruitful results evidenced by the publication of 12 volumes of Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants containing 414 monographs. Under this continuing programme, this thirteenth volume of Quality Standards of another 35 Indian Medicinal Plants is being published.

Despite certain limitations that these standards may have, it is a step towards improving the quality of finished products.

I deeply appreciate the efforts of the chairman and the members of the various committees, viz., Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force and the Technical Review Committee as well as investigators and the various Research Institutions who have contributed to the significant task of developing quality standard monographs.

 

Volume 14

 

Foreword

The global interest in Medicinal Plants and the fast expanding world market during the last two decades have necessitated quality ensured herbal drugs. An increase in the incidence of toxicity reported due to indiscriminate use, deliberate or undeliberate adulteration/substitution and presence of contaminants in herbal preparations available over the counter and as food supplements make it important to ensure their quality. Quality Standards of the Indian Medicinal Plants are necessary for the drugs and formulations produced from them to be of adequate quality, safety and efficacy for their wider acceptance and patients interest.

In response to this growing need, Indian Council of Medical Research took initiative in the year 2001 to lay down quality standards of important Medicinal Plants as per WHO guidelines. The endeavour yielded very fruitful results evidenced by the publication of 13 volumes of Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants containing 449 monographs. Under this continuing programme, this fourteenth volume of Quality Standards of another 35 Indian Medicinal Plants is being published.

Despite certain limitations that these standards may have, it is a step towards improving the quality of finished products.

I deeply appreciate the efforts of the chairman and the members of the various committees, viz., Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force and the Technical Review Committee as well as investigators and the various Research Institutions who have contributed to the significant task of developing quality standard monographs.

 

Preface

Medicinal plants remain the main source of medicines for a large proportion of global population particularly in the developing world. In India the raw material for herbal medicinal products is mostly procured from wild sources, there is every possibility of vast variation of chemical constituents in the material collected from different geographical sources. There is also a possibility of deliberate adulteration and substitution in the genuine raw material. In such a scenario the proper quality control of the herbal raw materials as well as the finished products become essential. Moreover, the quality of raw materials used in the herbal drugs assumes special significance particularly in context of conducting experimental studies, clinical trials and their therapeutic value.

The Medicinal Plants Division of the Indian Council of Medical Research took initiatives for developing Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants for more widely used raw materials involving laboratories of reputed institutes in the country to generate requisite data as per prescribed format for preparing monographs. Each monograph is titled with botanical nomenclature and incorporats diagnostic macro- and microscopic features, phytochemical constitutents, identification by chromatographic fingerprints (TLC/GLC/HPLCIHPTLC), quantitative determination of the phytochemical marker using reference marker compound, information of pharmacological, clinical, toxicological aspects, dose, adulterants / substitutes etc.

The present 14th volume in the series of already published l3 volumes contains quality standards of 35 plants. The present publication is an outcome of the ICMR programme under which work was carried out at Captain Srinivasa Murti Drug Research Institute for Ayurveda, Chennai, Tamil Nadu; Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal, Kerala and Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, Maharashtra.

It is hoped that the current volume like the previous volumes will also be of interest to the herbal drug industry, pharmaceutical and Ayurvedic academic/research institutes, practitioners of the Indigenous systems of medicine and health professional including regulatory authorities.

Preparation of the fifteenth volume in the series is in progress.

 

Introduction

Lack of quality standards of the raw material has been one of the major lacuna in the wider acceptance of plant based drugs. Medicinal Plants Division of the Indian Council of Medical Research has initiated a programme for the preparation of quality standards for herbal raw materials involving several research institutes of country to address this problem. This programme has resulted in publication of thirteen volumes on "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering 449 plants. The present volume is 14th in this series and contains monographs on 35 plants.

The following major guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards and preparation of the monographs.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The experiments conducted and the compiled data is subjected to careful scrutiny by the experts of the scientific committee. The information incorporated in the monographs is further supported by the photographs of the plant, the part/s of the plant used, microscopic details, the TLC details, chromatograms, etc.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

Each monograph starts with the parte s) used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: Are given with the structures of important compounds and active principles (if known). While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles which have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability are given. TLC is found to be more practically feasible and suitable to resolve most of the Components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Are described in detail for the analysis of marker compound. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: With respect to extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Are given wherever information is available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

. Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological, clinical and other biological activities of the part or the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute.

Major Therapeutic Claims: Are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug along with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dose: Is taken from the Classical Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC finger print details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first thirteen volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix 11), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix Ill), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents, names of plants in other languages and a list of monographs published in the earlier volumes (Vols 1-13).

 

Content Volume 1

 

  Message v
  Foreword vii
  Preface ix
  Acknowledgements xi
  Abbreviations xii
  Introduction xv
  Monographs  
1 Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet 1
2 Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Willd. 7
3 Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Johnston var. euchroma 13
4 Artemisia annua Linn. 21
5 Asparagus racemosus Willd. 27
6 Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. forma ligulata Yeo 34
7 Butea monosperma (Lamk.) Taub. 40
8 Cassia occidentalis Linn. 47
9 Cassia senna Linn. var. senna 57
10 Cinchona officinalis Linn.f. 65
11 Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl 74
12 Curcuma amada Roxb. 82
13 Cyperus rotundus Linn. 89
14 Elettaria cardamomum (Linn.) Maton 95
15 Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) Schult. 102
16 Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roth) DC. 109
17 Jatropha glandulifera Roxb. 117
18 Lawsonia inermis Linn. 123
19 Moringa oleifera Lamk. 130
20 Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) DC. 136
21 Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng. 142
22 Myristica fragrans Houtt. 150
23 Nigella sativa Linn. 161
24 Piper longum Linn. 168
25 Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC. 174
26 Sida acuta Burm. f. ssp. acuta 181
27 Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers. 187
28 Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. 198
29 Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. 205
30 Tinospora cordifolia (Will. ) Miers ex Hook.f. & Thoms. 212
31 Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merrill 219
32 Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) Merrill 226
  Appendices  
I Evaluation of crude drugs 235
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 238
III Methods for the isolation of markers 242
IV Drying and storage of raw material 243
V Pesticides, residues and microbial contamination 244
VI Plants allocated to various Institutes 246
  Indices  
I Botanical names 247
II Chemical constituents 249
III Other names of the plants 255

 

Content Volume 2

 

  Foreword v
  Preface vii
  Acknowledgements viii
  Abbreviations ix
  Introduction xi
  Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants Covered in Volume-1 xiii
  Monographs  
1 Albizia lebbeck (Linn.) Benth 1
2 Aristolochia indica Linn 9
3 Boswellia serrata Roxb. Ex Cloebr 19
4 Caesalpinia bonduc (Linn.) Roxb. emend. Dandy & Exell 25
5 Calotropis giganted (Linn.) R. Br. 34
6 Cassia fistula Linn. 47
7 Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Don 54
8 Cissus quadrangularis Linn 62
9 Convolvulus microphyllus Sieb. ex Spreng 70
10 Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn.) Colebr. 79
11 Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) soo 87
12 Digitalis lanata Ehrh 94
13 Euphorbia prostrata W. Ait 103
14 Euphorbia tirucalli Linn 112
15 Hemidesums indicus (Linn.) R. Br. 119
16 Hibiscus rosa- sinensis Linn 129
17 Hypericum perforatum Linn 136
18 Leucas cephalotes (Roth) Spreng 146
19 Malaxis acuminata D. Don 155
20 Mimusops elengi Linn 161
21 Ocimum basilicum Linn 168
22 Ocimum gratisslimum Linn 176
23 Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn. 184
24 Rauvolfia tetraphylla Linn. 193
25 Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde 201
26 Sida rhombifolia Linn. ssp. rhombifolia 209
27 Silybum marianum (Linn.) Gaertn. 217
28 Streblus asper Lour. 227
29 Taxus wallichiana Zucco 235
30 .Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) wight & Arn 243
31 Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K.Schum. 253
32 Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. 261
  Appendices  
I Evaluation of crude drugs 273
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 276
III Methods for the isolation of markers 280
IV Drying and storage of raw material 282
V Pesticide residues and microbial contamination 283
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 285
  Indices  
I Botanical names 286
II Chemical constituents 288
III Other names of the plants 296

 

Content Volume 3

 

  Foreword v
  Preface vii
  Acknowledgements viii
  Abbreviations ix
  Introduction xiii
  Contents of Volume 1 (Plants covered) xv
  Contents of Volume 2 (Plants covered) xvi
  Monographs:  
1 Adhatoda beddomei Clarke 1
2. Aerva lanata (Linn.) Juss. 9
3. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. 20
4. Allium cepa Linn. 29
5. Allium sativum Linn. 38
6. Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) R.Br. 48
7. . Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. ex DC.) Wall. ex Guill. & Perr 61
8. Areca catechu Linn. 69
9. Berberis aristata DC. var. aristata 78
10. Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. 88
11. Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew. 98
12. Carissa carandas Linn. 107
13. Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tiruv. ssp. spinosa 115
14. Cichorium intybus Linn .. 126
15. Cinnamomum camphora (Linn.) Presl 135
16. Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) Nees & Eberm. 149
17. Cissampelos pareira Linn. var. hirsuta (Buch.-Ham. ex DC.) Forman 158
18. Clerodendrum serratum (Linn.) Moon 167
19. Commiphora wightii (Arnott) Bhandari 177
20. Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn.f.) Etting. 189
21. Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. ex Kunth 195
22 Enicostemma hysspifolium (Willd.) Verd 203
23 Euphorbia thymifolia Linn 212
24 Ficus virens Ait 222
25 Garcinia gummi-gutta (Linn.)Rob 229
26 Leptadenia retuculata (Retz.) Wight & Arn 236
27 Merremia turpethum (Linn.) shaw & Bhatt 246
28 Mesua ferrea Linn. Var. ferrea 254
29 Momordica charantia Linn 262
30 Nelumbo charantia Linn 271
31 Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn 281
32 Psoralea corylifolia Linn 290
33 Punica granatum Linn 299
34 Rubia cordifolia Linn 307
35 Sapindus laurifolius Vahl 316
36 Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn 328
37 Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem 340
38 Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprague 349
39 Vitex negundo Linn 357
40 Woodfordia fruticosa (Linn.) Kurz 367
  Appendices  
I Evalution of crude drugs 377
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 380
III Methods for the isolation of markers 384
IV Drying and storage of raw material 387
VI Pesticide residues and microbial contamination 388
VII Plants allocated to various institute 390
  Indices  
I Botanical names 392
II Chemical constituents 394
III Other names of the plants 404

 

Content Volume 4

 

  Foreword v
  Preface vii
  Acknowledgements viii
  Abbreviations ix
  Introduction xiii
  Contents of Volume 1 (Plants covered) xv
  Contents of Volume 2 (Plants covered) xvi
  Contents of Volume 3 (Plants covered) xvii
  Monographs:  
1 Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle 1
2 Aesculus indica Colebr. ex Camb. 9
3 Anethum sowa Roxb. ex Flem. 18
4 Asparagus adscendens Roxb. 28
5 Barleria prionitis Linn. 36
6 Cannabis sativa Linn. 46
7 Carum carvi Linn. 57
8 Chlorophytum arundinaceum Baker 67
9 Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrard. 76
10 Clitoria ternatea Linn. 84
11 Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. 92
12 Colchicum luteum Baker 99
13 Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq. 107
14 Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pers. 116
15 Drimia indica (Roxb.) Jessop. 123
16 Embelia ribes Burm.f. 130
17 Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf 137
18 Evolvulus alsinoides (Linn.) Linn. 145
19 Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum.) Heine 154
20 Hyoscyamus niger Linn 161
21 Inula racemosa Hook.f.  
21 Inula racamosa Hook. F. 169
22 Pedalium murex Linn 178
23 Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Clarke 185
24 Podophyllum hexandrum Royle ex Camb 194
25 Saussurea costus (Falc) Lipsch 204
26 Symplocos racemosa Roxb 215
27 Trichosanthes tricuspidata Lour 224
28 Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn 232
29 Valeriana jatamansi Jones 242
30 Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash 251
31 Writhtia tinctoria R. Br. 262
32 Zanthoxylum armatum DC. 271
  Appendices  
I Evaluation of crude drugs 281
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 284
III Methods for the isolation of markers 288
IV Drying and storage of raw material 292
V Pesticide residues and microbial contamination 293
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 295
  Indices  
I Botanical names 296
II Chemical constituents 298
III Other names of the plants 310

 

Content Volume 5

 

  Foreword  
  Preface v
  Acknowledgements vii
  Abbreviations viii
  Introduction ,,~ ix
  Contents of Volume 1 (Plants covered) xiii
  Contents of Volume 2 (Plants covered) xv
  Contents of Volume 3 (Plants covered) xvi
  Contents of Volume 4 (Plants covered) xvii
  Monographs: xix
1 Abelmoschus moschatus (Linn.) Medik.  
2 Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Willd. ex Delile ssp. indica (Benth.) Brenan 1
3 Achillea millefolium Linn. 8
4 Agave americana Linn. 13
5 Alangium salvifolium (Linn.f.) Wang. var. salvifolium 24
6 Altemanthera sessilis (Linn.) R. Br. ex DC. 35
7 Ammi majus Linn. 43
8 Anthocephalus chinensis (Lamk.) A. Rich. ex Walp. 54
9 Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Bojer 63
10 Aristolochia bracteolata Lamk. 75
11 Avicennia officinalis Linn. 84
12 Balanites aegyptiaca (Linn.) Delile 91
13 Basella alba Linn. var. alba 98
14 Bauhinia variegata Linn. 116
15 Bombax ceiba Linn. 125
16 Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl 134
17 Calotropis procera (Ait.) Ait. f. ssp. hamiltonii (Wight) Ali 142
18 Coccinia grandis (Linn.) Voigt. 157
19 Colebrookea oppositifolia Smith 168
20 Cryptolepis buchanani Roem. &: Schult. 176
21 Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. 184
22 Derris indica (Lamk.) Bennet 193
23 Didymocarpus pedicellatus R. Br. 209
24 Erythrina variegata Linn. 221
25 Ferula assa-foetida Linn. 232
26 Haldina cordifolia (Willd. ex Roxb.) Ridsdale 238
27 Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) P1anch. 246
28 Hydnocarpus pentandra (Buch.-Ham.) Oken 256
29 Leucas plukenetii (Roth) Spreng . 265
30 Ocimum sanctum Linn. 275
3l. Oxalis corniculata Linn. 285
32 Peristrophe paniculata (Forssk.) Brummitt 295
33 Pimpinella anisum Linn. 304
34 Salacia chinensis Linn. 313
  Appendices  
I Evalutaion of crude drugs 323
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 326
III Methods for the isolation of markers 330
IV Drying and storage of raw material 334
V Pesticide residue and microbial contamination 335
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 337
  Indices  
I Botanical names 338
II Chemical constituents 340
III Other names of the plants 350

 

Contents Volume 6

 

  Foreword V
  Preface VII
  Acknowledgements VIII
  Abbreviations IX
  Introduction XIII
  Contents of Volume I (Plants covered) XV
  Contents of Volume 2 (Plants covered) XVI
  Contents of Volume 3 (Plants covered) XVII
  Contents of Volume 4 (Plants covered) XIX
  Contents of Volume 5 (Plants covered) XX
  Monographs  
1 Acacia sinuata (Lour.) Merr. 1
2 Acanthus ilicifolius Linn. 11
3 Ailanthus triphysa (Dennst.) Alston 19
4 Anisomeles malabarica (Linn.) R. Br. ex Sims 28
5 Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) Parker 37
6 Bixa orellana Linn. 46
7 Blumea lacera (Burm.f.) DC. 55
8 Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. 64
9 Cassia tora Linn. 76
10 Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. & Panz.) Swingle 86
11 Cleome gynandra Linn. 93
12 Curcuma aromatica Salisb. 101
13 Datura metel Linn. 110
14 Digitalis purpurea Linn. 124
15 Ficus hispida Linn. f. 133
16 Gloriosa superba Linn. 141
17 Gmelina arborea Roxb. 150
18 Heracleum candicans Wall. ex DC. 159
19 Ipomoea digitata Linn. 168
20 Jasminum auriculatum Vahl 176
21 Madhuca indica J.F. Gmel. 189
22 Myristica malabarica Lamk. 196
23 Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb 205
24 Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. f. 214
25 Rhizophora mucronata Larnk. 224
26 Salvadora persica Linn. 232
27 Santalum album Linn. 241
28 Sarcostemma acidum (Roxb.) Voigt 250
29 Sesamum indicum Linn. 259
30 Sesbania sesban (Linn.) Merr. 269
31 Shorea robusta Gaertn. 282
32 Stereospermum suaveolens (Roxb.) DC. 290
33 Strychnos potato rum Linn. f. 298
34 Terminalia alata Heyne ex Roth 304
35 Terminalia alata Heyne ex Roth 315
  Appendices  
I Evaluataion of crude drugs 325
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 328
III Methods for the isolation of markers 333
IV Drying and storage of raw material 338
V Pesticide residue and microbial contamination 339
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 341
  Indices  
I Botanical names 342
II Chemical constituents 344
III Other names of the plants 350

 

Contents Volume 7

 

  Foreword V
  Preface VII
  Acknowledgements VIII
  Abbrevations IX
  Introduction XIII
  Contents of' Volume I (Plants covered) XV
  Contents of Volume 2 (Plants covered) XVI
  Contents of Volume 3 (Plants covered) XVII
  Contents of Volume 4 (Plants covered) XIX
  Contents of Volume 5 (Plants covered) XX
  Contents of Volume 6 (Plants covered) XXI
  Monographs:  
1 Alhagi pseudalhagi (M.Bieb.) Desv. 1
2 Asclepias curassavica Linn. 13
3 Barringtonia acutangula Gaertn. 29
4 Caesalpinia sappan Linn. 37
5 Costus speciosus (Koen. ex Retz.) LE. Smith 47
6 Crinum asiaticum Linn. 56
7 Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Rose. 67
8 Dillenia indica Linn. 78
9 Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Gaertn.) K. Schum. 86
10 Eucalyptus globulus Labill. 94
11 Ficus benghalensis Linn. 104
12 Ficus religiosa Linn. 114
13 Garcinia indica (Thouars) Choisy 123
14 Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum.) Heine 133
15 Illicium g riffithii Hook.f. & Thoms. 142
16 Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. 152
17 Kaempferia galanga Linn. 162
18 Mallotus philippinensis (Larnk.) Muell.-Arg. 171
19 Nymphaea nouchali Burm.f. 181
20 Nymphaea pubescens Willd. 190
21 Piper betle Linn. 198
22 Plumbago indica Linn. 208
23 Plumbago zeylanica Linn. 218
24 Prunus cerasoides D. Don 227
25 Sesbania bispinosa (Jacq.) W. F. Wight 235
26 Solanum anguivi Lamk. 242
27 Solanum torvum Swartz 254
28 Solanum villosum Mill. ssp. villosum Edmonds 266
29 Spondias pinnata (Linn.f.) Kurz 278
30 Stereospermum suaveolens (Roxb.) DC. 286
31 Syzygium cumini (Linn.) Skeels 295
32 Tamarindus indica Linn. 304
33 Vernonia conyzoides DC. 310
34 Zizyphus jujuba Mill. 321
  Appendices  
I Evaluation of crude drugs 331
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 334
III Methods for the isolation of markers 338
IV Drying and storage of raw material 340
V Pesticide residue and microbial contamination 341
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 343
  Indices  
I Botanical names 344
II Chemical constituents 346
III Other names of the plants 353

 

Contents Volume 8

 

  Foreword V
  Preface VII
  Acknow ledgements VIII
  Abbreviations IX
  Introduction XIII
  Contents of Volume 1 (Plants covered) XV
  Contents of Volume 2 (Plants covered) XVI
  Contents of Volume 3 (Plants covered) XVII
  Contents of Volume 4 (Plants covered) XIX
  Contents of Volume 5 (Plants covered) XX
  Contents of Volume 6 (Plants covered) XXI
  Contents of Volume 7 (Plants covered) XXII
  Monographs:  
1 Abies spectabilis (D. Don) Mirb. 1
2 Abrus precatorius Linn. 9
3 Aegle manne/os (Linn.) Correa 18
4 Aglaia elaeagnoidea (A. Juss.) Benth. 27
5 Ammannia baccifera Linn. 36
6 Amomum subulatum Roxb. 46
7 Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees 55
8 Angelica glauca Edgew. 68
9 Amdirachta indica A. Juss. 77
10 Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Pennell 86
11 Buchanania lanzan Spreng. 97
12 Butea monospenna (Lamk.) Taub. 105
13 Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban 115
14 Centratherum anthelminticum (Li.nn.) Kuntze 128
15 Curcuma longa Linn. 138
16 Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pers. 149
17 Emblica officinalis Gaertn. 160
18 Exacum tetragonum Roxb. 173
19 Helicteres isora Linn. 184
20 Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.-Ham.) Wall. ex G. Don 194
21 Moringa oleifera Lamk. 203
22 Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. 211
23 Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. 220
24 Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. 232
25 Pinus roxburghii Sargent 245
26 Piper nigrum Linn. 255
27 Pseudarthria viscida (Linn.) Wight & Am. 264
28 Rauvolfia serpentina (Linn.) Benth. ex Kurz 272
29 Solanum virginiatum Linn. 283
30 Sterculia urens Roxb. 296
31 Swertia angustifolia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don 302
32 Syzygium aromaticum (Linn.) Merrill & Perry 314
33 Tribulus terrestris Linn. 325
34 Uraria picta (Jacq.) Desv. ex DC. 339
35 Zingiber officinale Rose. 347
  Appendices  
  Evaluation of crude drugs 359
  Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 362
  Methods for the isolation of markers 367
  Drying and storage of raw material 370
  Pesticide residue and microbial contamination 371
  Plants allocated to various institutes 373
  Indices  
  Botanical names 375
  Chemical constituents 377
  Other names of the plants 387

 

Contents Volume 9

 

  Foreword V
  Preface VII
  Acknow ledgements VIII
  Abbreviations IX
  Introduction XIII
  Contents of Volume 1 (Plants covered) XV
  Contents of Volume 2 (Plants covered) XVI
  Contents of Volume 3 (Plants covered) XVII
  Contents of Volume 4 (Plants covered) XIX
  Contents of Volume 5 (Plants covered) XX
  Contents of Volume 6 (Plants covered) XXI
  Contents of Volume 7 (Plants covered) XXII
  Contents of Volume 8 (Plants covered) XXIII
  Monographs :  
1 Acacia catechu (Linn.f.) Willd. 1
2 Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Willd. ex Delile ssp. indica (Benth.) Brenan 10
3 Achyranthes aspera Linn. 18
4 Aloe vera (Linn.) Burm.f. 32
5 Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. 47
6 Boerhavia diffusa Linn. 59
7 1. Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D.Don) G.Don 72
8 Celastrus paniculatus Willd. 81
9 Crocus sativus Linn. 92
10 Cuminum cyminum Linn. 101
11 Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. 113
12 Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC. 122
13 Dioscorea compos ita Hemsl. 131
14 Eclipta prostrata (Linn.) Linn. 138
15 Fagonia indica Burm.f. 152
16 Ficus racemosa Linn. 166
17 Glycyrrhiia glabra Linn. 175
18 Gmelina arborea Roxb. 187
19 Hedychium spicatum Buch.-Ham. ex lE. Smith 196
20 Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum.) Heine 205
21 Luffa acutangula (Linn.) Roxb. 218
22 Melia azedaracn Linn. 234
23 Mentha piperita Linn. 242
24 Mentha spicata Linn. 253
25 Michelia champaca Linn. 262
26 Mimosa pudica Linn. 271
27 Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke 281
28 Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. 292
29 Rheum australe D.Don 301
30 Semecarpus anacardium Linn.f. 311
31 Sida cordifolia Linn. 324
32 Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni 333
33 Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) Karsten 344
34 Withania somnifera (Linn.) Dunal 356
35 Zanthoxylum armatum DC. 368
  Appendices  
I Evaluation of crude drugs 379
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 382
III Methods for the isolation of markers 387
IV Drying and storage of raw material 389
V Pesticide residue and microbial contamination 390
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 392
  Indices  
I Botanical names 394
II Chemical constituents 396
III Other names of the plants 408

 

Contents Volume 10

 

  Foreword V
  Preface VII
  Acknowledgements VIII
  Abbreviations IX
  Introduction XIII
  Contents of Volume 1 (Plants covered) XV
  Contents of Volume 2 (Plants covered) XVI
  Contents of Volume 3 (Plants covered) XVII
  Contents of Volume 4 (Plants covered) XIX
  Contents of Volume 5 (Plants covered) XX
  Contents of Volume 6 (Plants covered) XXI
  Contents of Volume 7 (Plants covered) XXII
  Contents of Volume 8 (Plants covered) XXIII
  Contents of Volume 9 (Plants covered) XXI
  Monographs :  
1 Abroma augusta (Linn.) Linn. f. 1
2 Acacia leucophloea (Roxb.) Willd. 9
3 Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. ex Holmes 17
4 Acorus calamus Linn. 25
5 Amomum subulatum Roxb. 38
6 Apium leptophyllum (Pers.) F. Muell. ex Benth. 48
7 Betula utilis D. Don 59
8 Capparis spinosa Linn. var. spinosa 68
9 Carthamus tinctorius Linn. 80
10 Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. 91
11 Crate va magna (Lour.) DC. 106
12 Cucurbita pepo Linn. 116
13 Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. 126
14 Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (Linn.) Taub. 138
15 Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. 145
16 Datura stramonium Linn. 155
17 Derris indica (Lamk.) Bennet 170
18 Euphorbia hirta Linn. 180
19 Limonia acidissima Linn. 195
20 Mammea suriga (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.) Kosterm. 205
21 Matricaria chamomilla Linn. 215
22 Moringa oleifera Lamk. 230
23 Nardostachys jatamansi DC. 241
24 Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. 251
25 Oroxylum indicum (Linn.) Vent. 261
26 Phyla nodiflora (Linn.) Greene 270
27 Piper cubeba Linn. f. 282
28 Raphanus sativus Linn. 293
29 Ricinus communis Linn. 303
30 Ruta chalepensis Linn. 326
31 Salacia reticulata Wight 334
32 Salvadora persica Linn. 343
33 Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. 352
34 Tridax procumbens Linn. 363
35 Vitex agnus-castus Linn. 376
  Appendices  
I Evaluation of crude drugs 387
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 390
III Methods for the isolation of markers 395
IV Drying and storage of raw material 401
V Pesticide residues and microbial contamination 402
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 404
  Indices  
I Botanical names 406
II Chemical constituents 408
III Other names of the plants 423

 

Contents Volume 11

 

  Foreword V
  Preface VII
  Acknowledgement VIII
  Abbreviations IX
  Introduction XII
  Content of Volume 1 (Plants covered) XIV
  Content of Volume 2 (Plants covered) XV
  Content of Volume 3 (Plants covered) XVI
  Content of Volume 4 (Plants covered) XVIII
  Content of Volume 5 (Plants covered) XIX
  Content of Volume 6 (Plants covered) XX
  Content of Volume 7 (Plants covered) XXI
  Content of Volume 8 (Plants covered) XXII
  Content of Volume 9 (Plants covered) XXIII
  Content of Volume 10 (Plants covered) XXIV
  Monographs:  
1 Acacia pennata (Linn.)Willd. 1
2 Achyranthes bidentata Blume 12
3 Adhatoda zeylanica Medik 25
4 Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson 38
5 Argyreia nervosa (Burm. F.) Bojer 48
6 Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Flower) 58
7 Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Fruit) 68
8 Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Leaf) 83
9 Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Root bark) 98
10 Caesalpinia coriarius (Jacq.) Willd 107
11 Carthamus tinctorius Linn 116
12 Chrysanthemum indicum Linn 125
13 Cinnaamomum zeylanicum Nees (Oil) 135
14 Citrullus colocynthis (Linn) Schrad 142
15 Croton tiglium Linn 151
16 Cucumis melo Linn. Var. utilissimus Duthie & fuller 162
17 Cucumis sativus Linn. 170
18 Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. 179
19 Eupatorium triplinerve vahl 190
20 Euphorbia neriifolia Linn 202
21 Fumaria indica (Haussk.) Pugsley 212
22 Gmelina arborea Roxb. 225
23 Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. 234
24 Ixora coccinea Linn. 242
25 Linum usitatissmum Linn. 253
26 Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) DC. 263
27 Nerium indicum Mill. 271
28 Pavonia odorata Willd. 281
29 Pipper retrofractum Vahl (Fruit) 295
30 Pipper retrofractum Vahl (Stem) 305
31 Plantago ovata Forssk. 315
32 Thymus vulgaris Linn. (Oil) 323
33 Trianthema decandra Linn. 329
34 Vitex negundo Linn. (Fruit) 342
35 Vitex negundo Linn. (Root) 356
  Appendices  
I Evaluation of crude drugs 367
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 370
III Methods for the isolation of markers 376
IV Drying and storage of raw material 379
V Pesticide residue and microbial contamination 380
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 382
  Indices  
I Botanical names 384
II Chemical constituents 386
III Other names of the plants 395

 

Contents Volume 12

 

  Foreword V
  Preface VII
  Acknowledgement VIII
  Abbreviations IX
  Introduction XIII
  Content of Volume 1 (Plants covered) XV
  Content of Volume 2 (Plants covered) XVI
  Content of Volume 3 (Plants covered) XVII
  Content of Volume 4 (Plants covered) XIX
  Content of Volume 5 (Plants covered) XX
  Content of Volume 6 (Plants covered) XXI
  Content of Volume 7 (Plants covered) XXII
  Content of Volume 8 (Plants covered) XXIII
  Content of Volume 9 (Plants covered) XXIV
  Content of Volume 10 (Plants covered) XXV
  Content of Volume 11 (Plants covered) XXVI
  Monographs:  
1 Abrus precatorius Linn. 1
2 Acacia farnesiana (Linn.) Willd. 12
3 Acacia polyacantha Willd. 20
4 Acalypha indica Linn. 28
5 Aconitum ferox Wall. Ex Ser. 41
6 Aconitum violaceum Jacq. Ex stapf. 49
7 Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. 57
8 Aegle maemelos (Linn.) Corr. (Root) 69
9 Aegle maemelos (Linn.) Corr. (Fruit) 79
10 Aesculus hippocastanum Linn. 88
11 Alpinia calcarata Rosc. 100
12 Amaranthus tricolor Linn. 109
13 Ananas comosus (Linn.) Merr. 124
14 Argemone mexicana Linn. 135
15 Buchanania lanzan Spreng. 163
16 Carica papaya Lin. 173
17 Cassia fistula Linn. 186
18 dendrum phlomidis Linn. F. 196
19 Derris indica (Lamk.) Bennet 206
20 Desmodium Gangeticum (Linn.) DC. 216
21 Dryopteris Filix-mas (Linn.) Schott 227
22 Eucalyptus globulus Labill (Oil) 237
23 Getonia floribunda Roxb. (Leaf) 246
24 Getonia floribunda Roxb. (Root) 257
25 Glycine max (Linn.) Merr 265
26 Heliotropium indicum Linn. 276
27 Lepidium sativum Linn. 289
28 Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn. 299
29 Lilium polyphyllum D. Don ex Royle 307
30 Manihot Esculenta Crantz 314
31 Merremia tridentata (Linn.) Hall. F. 324
32 Raphanus sativus Linn. 338
33 Sesamum orientale Linn. (Oil) 351
34 Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. 363
35 Tectona grandis Linn. F. 371
  Appendices  
I Evaluation of crude drugs 383
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 386
III Methods for the isolation of markers 394
IV Drying and storage of raw material 398
V Pesticide residue and microbial contamination 399
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 401
  Indices  
I Botanical names 403
II Chemical constituents 404
III Other names of the plants 411
IV Monographs published in earlier volumes (Vols 1-11) 416
Contents Volume 13

 

  Foreword V
  Preface VII
  Acknowledgements VIII
  Abbreviations IX
  Introduction XIII
  Contents of Volume 1 (Plants covered) XV
  Contents of Volume 2 (Plants covered) XVI
  Contents of Volume 3 (Plants covered) XVII
  Contents of Volume 4 (Plants covered) XIX
  Contents of Volume 5 (Plants covered) XX
  Contents of Volume 6 (Plants covered) XXI
  Contents of Volume 7 (Plants covered) XXII
  Contents of Volume 8 (Plants covered) XXIII
  Contents of Volume 9 (Plants covered) XXIV
  Contents of Volume 10 (Plants covered) XXV
  Contents of Volume 11 (Plants covered) XXVI
  Contents of Volume 12 (Plants covered) XXVII
  Monographs:  
1 Adhatoda zeylanica Medik. 1
2 Ammi visnaga (Linn.) Lamk. 9
3 Amomum aromaticum Roxb 19
4 Angelica archangelica Linn. 29
5 Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. ex DC.) Wall. Ex Guill. & Perr. 39
6 Apium graveolens Linn. 48
7 Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk 63
8 Atropa belladonna Linn. 81
9 Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell.-Arg. (Leaf) 91
10 Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell.-Arg. (Root) 102
11 Bambusa bambos (Linn.) Voss 110
12 Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn. 119
13 Brassica campestris Linn. 128
14 Butea monosperma (Lamk.) Taub. 137
15 Cajanus cajan (Linn.) Millsp. (Seed) 146
16 Cajanus cajan (Linn.) Millsp. (Root) 156
17 Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. (Oil) 165
18 Calotropis procera (Ait.) Dryand. ssp. hamiltonii (Wight) AIi (Stem bark) 172
19 Calotropis procera (Ait.) Dryand. ssp. hamiltonii (Wight) Ali (Root) 179
20 Carissa carandas Linn. 188
21 Cichorium intybus Linn.(Leaf) 197
22 Cichorium intybus Linn. (Fruit) 205
23 Coriandrum sativum Linn. 214
24 Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) W. Wats. 224
25 Datura metel Linn. 236
26 Ficus benghalensis Linn. 244
27 Foeniculum vulgare (Linn.) Mill 254
28 Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall. (Oil) 264
29 Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B. Rob. 269
30 Mangifera indica Linn. 278
31 Pandanus odoratissimus Linn.f 290
32 Portulaca oleracea Linn. 299
33 Rosa x centifolia Linn. 313
34 Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. 323
35 Viola odorata Linn. 330
  Appendices  
I Evaluation of crude drugs 345
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 348
III Methods for the isolation of markers 354
IV Drying and storage of raw material 358
V Pesticide residue and microbial contamination 359
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 361
  Indices  
I Botanical names 363
II Chemical constituents 365
III Other names of the plants 373
IV Monographs published in earlier volumes (Vols 1-12) 380
Contents Volume 14

 

  Foreword V
  Preface VII
  Acknowledgements VIII
  Abbreviations IX
  Introduction XIII
  Contents of Volume 1 (Plants covered) XV
  Contents of Volume 2 (Plants covered) XVI
  Contents of Volume 3 (Plants covered) XVII
  Contents of Volume 4 (Plants covered) XIX
  Contents of Volume 5 (Plants covered) XX
  Contents of Volume 6 (Plants covered) XXI
  Contents of Volume 7 (Plants covered) XXII
  Contents of Volume 8 (Plants covered) XXIII
  Contents of Volume 9 (Plants covered) XXIV
  Contents of Volume 10 (Plants covered) XXV
  Contents of Volume 11 (Plants covered) XXVI
  Contents of Volume 12 (Plants covered) XXVII
  Contents of Volume 13 (Plants covered) XXVIII
  Monographs  
1 Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. 1
2 Adiantum lunulatum Burm. f 9
3 Alectra parasitica A. Rich. ssp. chitrakutensis (M. A. Rau) K. K. Khanna & A. Kumar 20
4 Althaea officinalis Linn. 28
5 Anacardium occidentale Linn. 39
6 Antiaris toxicaria (Pers.) Lesch. 51
7 Apama siliquosa Lamk 60
8 Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk 68
9 Aristolochia indica Linn. 77
10 Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell.-Arg. 88
11 Brassica campestris Linn. (Oil) 97
12 Calamus rotang Linn 103
13 Capsicum annuum Linn 111
14 Careya arborea Roxb 123
15 Cassia fistula Linn. 133
16 Citrus limon (Linn.) Osbeck 141
17 Cyperus scariosus R. Br 153
18 Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr. 162
19 Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. ex Buch.-Ham. 172
20 Gardenia gummifera Linn. f 179
21 Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet 185
22 Ginkgo biloba Linn. 193
23 Hydnocarpus kurzii (King) Warb. 207
24 Illicium verum Hook. f. 216
25 Indigofera tinctorie Linn. 228
26 Juniperus communis Linn. 240
27 Lavandula angustifolia Mill. 249
28 Phyllanthus fraternus Webst. 259
29 Physalis alkekengi Linn. 271
30 Premna serratifolia Linn. 283
31 Prosopis cinererie (Linn.) Druce 293
32 Spondias pinnata (Linn. f.) Kurz 304
33 Syzygium aromaticum (Linn.) Merril & Perry (Oil) 314
34 Toona ciliata M. Roem 322
35 Typha australis K. Schum. & Thonn. 331
  Appendices  
I Evaluation of crude drugs 343
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 346
III Methods for the isolation of markers 353
IV Drying and storage of raw material 355
V Pesticide residue and microbial contamination 356
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 358
  Indices  
I Botanical names 360
II Chemical constituents 361
III Other names of the plants 370
IV Monographs published in earlier volumes (Vols 1-13) 376

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Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants (Set of 14 Volumes)

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Volume 1

Edition: 2003

Foreword

It is being globally recognized that medicinal plants play a significant role in providing health benefits to human beings. The increase in the demand for plant based medicines and their eventual commercialization has brought about a major shift in their status from providing strictly individually tailored hand picked plant products based health care to availability of over the counter health products. But global acceptance of Indian plant-based drugs is still low. Non-availability and/or inadequacy of quality standards is perhaps the single most important factor responsible for it. International agencies like World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), International Centre for Science and High Technology (ICS) and Asia Pacific Centre for Transfer Technology (APCTT) have also emphasized on the need of ensuring quality control of medicinal plant drugs by applying suitable standards employing modern techniques. But this is unlikely to be achieved until the quality of the base material for formulating the herbal products is assured. The complex composition of medicinal plant drugs, has posed a major challenge for quality control.

Standardization of the presumed active constituents of the drug is perhaps not the best approach; as only in few cases does the drug-activity depend upon a single component. In fact, it is the outcome of synergistic effect of several active compounds and accompanying inert substances. It is thus, reasonable to use the naturally occurring wholesome medicinal plant material for standardization. A number of factors such as age and origin of the plant, time of its collection, method of drying, garbling, storage etc. influence the proportion of various components in the plant material. The analytical limits therefore, cannot be expected to be as precise as for the single pure synthetic drug.

Inspite of these and other inherent difficulties, quality standards for the medicinal plants used in India are necessary for the drugs and formulations produced from them to be of adequate quality, safety and efficacy for their wide acceptance.

In response to this need, the Indian Council of Medical Research has taken the initiative to lay down quality standards of important medicinal plants, as per WHO guidelines. Reputed institutes have been involved to evolve these standards. Vital has resulted in the production of this volume, which is first in the series and deals with 32 medicinal plants. I trust this volume will be of immense help to medicinal plant based data generated at these institutes and compilation of the requisite information from literature drug industry, drug analytical laboratories, drugs control authorities, academicians and researchers engaged in work on medicinal plant drugs.

I deeply appreciate the efforts of the Chairman and the members of the various Committees viz., Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force, the Technical Review Committee. The work would not have been possible but for the important role played by the collaborative Institutions.

Despite certain limitations that these standards may have, it is a step towards improving the quality of finished product. Better quality would inevitably help in raising the acceptance of Indian plant based health products.

 

Preface

Interest in medicinal plants has been overwhelming in the recent times especially as an important source of medication/health care in Indian Systems of Medicine. Currently, the global market for medicinal plants has been estimated around US $62 billion and the demand is growing rapidly. While, the domestic trade in herbal drug preparations used in Indian Systems of Medicine is to the tune of Rs. 4200 crores per annum, the annual export from India to the tune of Rs. 400 crores only.

In our country nearly 7,500 plant species are being used in the formulation of medicinal plant-based health care products. The quality and the efficacy of these preparations depend largely on the quality of the raw material used. The increase in the reported incidence of toxicity, indiscriminate use and easy availability of herbal preparations and food supplements makes it imperative to lay down standards which could ensure their quality, safety and efficacy. Our plant based drug industry too needs quality parameters for medicinal plants for the production of quality ensured standardized herbal drugs.

Evolving methods of standardization and establishing quality control parameters for herbal drugs calls for a well planned approach for establishing standards and this can be achieved only through systematic evaluation of the plant material using modern analytical techniques including chromatographic ones.

With this background, the ICMR took an initiative for development of standards of selected medicinal plants commonly used in India for their therapeutic value. A Task Force was constituted, list of plants drawn and the work was carried out at four institutions viz., B.Y. Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development Centre, Ahmedabad; National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow; National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, S.A.S. Nagar (Mohali) and Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Thiruvanthapuram. The work done at these institutes has resulted in preparation of monographs on 32 plants encompassing detailed pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies coupled with other information based on literature review.

The publication is the first volume in the series on standards of medicinal plants and is expected to be useful for the herbal drug industry/pharmacies, practitioners of indigenous systems of medicine, academicians, researchers and health professionals. The regulatory authorities may also find it useful as a reference. Preparation of the second volume in the series is in progress.

 

Introduction

Plant based medicines have been used by mankind since time immemorial. According to the report of World Health Organization, over 80 per cent of the world population relies on the traditional systems of medicine, largely plant based, to meet their primary health care. The effectiveness of these systems, in turn, mainly depends upon the proper use and sustained availability of genuine raw material. Global resurgence of the interest in herbal drugs has led to the need of their mass production which perhaps was not even contemplated by the traditional medicine practitioners who prepared and dispensed the medicine on a personal and individual basis. Largescale production of medicinal plant products necessitated the availability of standards to ensure their quality, efficacy and safety.

Furthermore, limited availability of medicinal plants of consistent quality has been perhaps one of the toughest impediment for reliable biological, pharmacological, chemical and clinical evaluation besides their use in health care. Lack or inadequacy of quality standards has been a discouraging factor for many potential herbal drug manufacturers and also a handicap in regulating the herbal drug market.

Against this backdrop, the Indian Council of Medical Research initiated a programme for laying down quality standards of about 200 medicinal plants widely used in India. Special emphasis has been laid on various chromatographic techniques including thin layer chromatographic, fingerprinting, HPTLC, HPLC, and GLC wherever needed. The studies complemented by literature backup has resulted in the preparation of monographs on 32 individual medicinal plants which have been covered in the present first volume. The work on the remaining plants is in progress.

The contents of monograph on each plant have been systematically described as follows:

Botanical name with authority, synonym, part(s) used, geographical source.

Other names of the drug in different languages.

Part(s) of the plant used as drug.

Macroscopic and microscopic description of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characters of the part(s) used along with colour photographs of the plant, part(s) used and illustrated diagrams of histological features.

Chemical constituents, structure of important chemical constituents. Identity test based on different chemical groups and TLC / GLC fingerprint profiles along with marker compound(s).

Assay/analytical method (using HPLC, HPTLC, GLC etc.) for the analysis of marker compounds along with detailed procedure and chromatograms.

Other quantitative standards include foreign matter, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, ethanol-soluble extractive, water-soluble extractive and loss on drying.

Adulterants/substitutes if any, giving details of distinguishing features from the genuine drug.

Important pharmacological and clinical studies in brief, as reported in the literature.

Therapeutic category as mentioned in Ayurvedic texts or as evidenced by clinical trials and reported in literature.

Safety aspects as mentioned in Ayurvedic texts or as reported in publications on pharmacological/toxicological aspects.

Dosage as mentioned in Ayurvedic texts or as reported in other scientific publications.

Complete references of the work cited.

This is followed by relevant appendices giving methods for evaluation of crude drugs (appendix I), phytochemical evaluation of raw material (appendix II), methods for isolation of markers (appendix III), drying and storage of raw material (appendix IV), pesticides, residues and microbial contamination (appendix V) and plant allocated to various institutions (appendix VI). Indices on botanical names, chemical constituents and other names of plants have been given at the end.

 

Volume 2

Edition: 2005

 

Foreword

There has been global resurgence' of interest in the area of medicinal plant health care products, as a result of which, a number of national and international organizations such as World Health Organization, European Scientific Cooperative, German Commission E, Japanese and Chinese organizations, have taken initiative to prepare and publish monographs on medicinal plants. All such monographs lay special emphasis on quality standards of the plant material. India is one of the twelve mega biodiversity centres rich in medicinal and aromatic plants occurring in diverse ecosystems. Out of the 45,000 known plant species nearly 1500 plant species are being used in the Indian System of Medicine. In the draft of the National policy on the Indian System of Medicine, priority is being given to research on standardization besides pharmacology, toxicology and clinical trials of herbal drugs.

The Indian Council of Medical Research took initiative to lay down quality standards of important medicinal plants involving reputed research institutes. The collection of monographs published in 2003 as "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants Vol. 1" was the outcome of these efforts. The current publication is the second volume of the above series. We are happy to note that the first volume was greatly appreciated and received well by all those involved in different activities related to herbal drugs in India and abroad. I hope that just like the first volume, the second volume will also be of great help to medicinal plant based drug industry, drug regulatory authorities, researchers and academicians involved in work on medicinal plants.

I greatly appreciate the efforts of the Chairman and the members of the Scientific Advisory Group, Task Force and the Technical Review Committees and the contributions made by the participating institutions.

 

Preface

Worldwide interest in multifaceted potential of plants has resulted into gradual transition of the traditional medicine from being a personalized one to the present state where the plant based drugs are commercially produced in large scale and sold as OTC drugs or as prescription medicines. Furthermore in India where almost 90 percent of the raw material for herbal medicinal products is procured by the industry from wild sources, there is every possibility of vast variation of chemical constituents in the material collected from different geographical sources. In addition there is a possibility of deliberate adulteration or substitution in the genuine raw material. In such a scenario proper quality control of the herbal raw material as well as finished products becomes essential. Thus, the need for development of quality standards and preparation of monographs there on, cannot be over emphasized.

In an effort to address this problem, the Indian Council of Medical Research initiated a programme on evolving standards for the medicinal plants involving reputed research institutes in the country. Under this programme the first volume of "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering 32 plants was published in 2003. This is the second volume in the series and contains quality standards of another set of 32 medicinal plants. As with the first volume, the second volume in the series is also expected to be well received and useful to the herbal drug industry, practitioners of Indigenous System of Medicine, academicians, researchers and health professionals including regulatory authorities.

Preparation of the third volume in the series is in progress.

 

Introduction

World Health Organization promotes and encourages the use of herbal medicinal products in the national health care programmes of various countries as 3/4th of the world population relies on traditional systems of medicine, largely medicinal plant based, to meet their primary health care needs. Lack of or inadequacy of quality standards of the herbal material has been an impediment in the wider acceptance of the herbal medicinal products as well as a discouraging factor for many reputed herbal drug manufacturers and also a handicap in regulating herbal drug market. In an effort to address this problem, the Indian Council of Medical Research initiated work on the preparation of standards for herbal raw material involving several reputed research institutes in the country. This endeavour resulted in publication of the first volume on "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" in 2003. In continuing efforts in this direction, this is the second volume in the series containing monographs on the raw material from 32 medicinal plants. The approach being followed for executing this work is as follows:

Authentic plant material is procured from three geographical locations. Details of pharmacognostic features, quantitative standards and phytochemical profiles are generated by the participating institutions. Information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, adulterants/substitutes, therapeutic claims, safety aspects and dosage is derived from the published literature and classical books. Literature search for each plant is made, reviewed and only the relevant information is incorporated from original articles.

From the information so generated, each monograph is compiled, and presented in a uniform format, under the following heads:

The monograph starts with the part used, botanical name with authority, synonyms and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder and illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: The structures of important compounds and active principles (if known) are given. While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available. The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, viz., major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts are given. Under the second category of chemical constituents which are present in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Detailed description for the analysis of marker compound is given. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated, e.g., total alkaloids, total hydroxyanthracene derivatives, etc. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: Extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Information is provided whereever available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute. Clinical trials, wherever conducted have been mentioned.

Major Therapeutic Claims: These are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug mentioned with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dosage: Is taken from the standard Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the histology of the drug, and TLC finger print details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

Relevant appendices are added at the end of the volume, giving methods for the evaluation of the crude drugs (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation of raw material (Appendix II), methods for isolation of markers (Appendix III), drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for development of quality standards (Appendix VI). Indices on botanical names, chemical constituents and names of plants in other languages have been given at the end.

 

Volume 3

Edition: 2005

Foreword

Man's dependence on plants for health care is as old as the existence of the mankind on this planet. Since the advent of modern medicine, plants have also become a source of important phytopharmaceuticals and lead molecules with unique chemical structures and mechanism of action. Over the last few decades alternative medicine, which is essentially plant based, has experienced a remarkable and steady increase all over the world. This has generated a multifaceted interest in the medicinal plants, which includes the sourcing of the raw material (through cultivation or from wild populations), preparation of formulations, multimarker based phytochemical evaluation for standardization, pharmacological, toxicological and clinical evaluation to establish efficacy and safety, of single drugs as well as polyherbal formulations and their large scale manufacture and marketing. This activity has necessitated the requirement of good quality of raw material. Consequently it became important to establish quality parameters for the herbal raw material. In the recent years many national and international bodies have been preparing and publishing monographs on medicinal plants defining quality parameters necessary to maintain quality.

In India, with its age old traditional systems of medicine and rich treasure of medicinal plants, about 1500 plant species are being used in the Indian System of Medicine, and many more plants in the folk and tribal medicine. The Indian Council of Medical Research took initiative to lay down standards for herbal raw material from important medicinal plants, involving reputed research institutes of India. An outcome of these efforts has been the publication of two volumes of monographs on the "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants". The current publication is the third volume of this series. The first two volumes received the appreciation of all those involved in different activities related to medicinal plants, We hope that the third volume also will be received well and be of help to herbal drug industry, drug regulatory authorities, researchers and academicians. I greatly appreciate the efforts of the Chairman and members of the Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force, the Technical Review Committee, investigators and the research institutions which contributed to the significant task of developing quality standards.

 

Preface

The interest in and the demand for the plant based drugs increased in the last few decades, and this led to large scale commercial production of both classical and proprietary herbal formulations in the country. As a result, the demand for herbal raw material also increased. The raw material is being procured from wild as well as cultivated sources. Several factors are known to influence the quality of the herbal raw material. Hence, to maintain quality and to ensure efficacy, quality parameters are to be defined.

Sensing this need, the Indian Council of Medical Research initiated a programme to develop monographs on important Indian medicinal plants involving several research institutes and laboratories of the country. The monographs so evolved are being published under a series. So far two volumes of "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" have been published which contain monographs on 32 medicinal plants each. This is the third volume in the series with monographs on 40 medicinal plants. We expect these monographs to be of use to the herbal drugs manufacturers, regulatory authorities, academicians, researchers and those interested in medicinal plants.

Work on preparing monographs on raw materials from many more medicinal plants is in progress.

 

Introduction

Multifaceted potential of medicinal plants, as also the fact that about three fourth of the world population relies on traditional systems of medicine to meet their primary health care needs, has generated a global interest in the area of medicinal plants. Various international agencies like World Health Organization have been emphasizing on the importance and need of standardization of herbal raw material. Lack of or an inadequate quality standard of raw material has been one of the major impediments in wider acceptance of herbal drugs. It has also been a discouraging factor for many herbal drug manufacturers besides being a handicap in regulating herbal drug market. In an effort to address this problem, the Indian Council of Medical Research initiated work on the preparation of standards for herbal raw material involving several reputed research institutes in the country. This endeavour resulted in publication of the two volumes on "Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants". In continuing efforts in this direction, this is the third volume in the series containing monographs on the raw material from 40 medicinal plants. The approach being followed for executing this work is as follows:

Authentic plant material is procured from three geographical locations. Details of pharmacognostic features, quantitative standards and phytochemical profiles are generated by the participating institutions. Information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity adulterants/substitutes, therapeutic claims, safety aspects and dosage is derived from the published literature and classical books. Literature search for each plant is made, reviewed and only the relevant information is incorporated from original articles.

From the information so generated, each monograph is compiled, and presented in a uniform format, under the following heads:

The monograph starts with the part used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, geographical source and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, viz.; major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts are given. Under the second category, the chemical constituents which are either present in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed. The structures of important compounds and active principles (if known) are given. While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information 0 specific compounds is available.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability. TLC is found to be practically more feasible and suitable to resolve most of the components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Detailed description for the analysis of marker compound is given. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated, e.g., total alkaloids, etc. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: Extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Information is provided where ever available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute. Clinical trials, wherever conducted have been mentioned.

Major Therapeutic Claims: These are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug mentioned with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dosage: Is taken from the standard Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC finger print details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

Relevant appendices are added at the end of the volume, giving methods for the evaluation of the crude drugs (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation of raw material (Appendix II), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix III), drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for development of quality standards (Appendix VI). Indices on botanical names, chemical constituents and other names of the plants have been given at the end.

 

Volume 4

Edition:2006

Foreword

The growing worldwide interest in medicinal plants and fast expanding global market in the last two decades, has necessitated for quality ensured herbal drugs. Further, the increase in the incidence of toxicity reported due to the indiscriminate use of herbal preparations available over the counter and as food supplements make it important to ensure their safety and efficacy. Therefore, in the present business and industrial scenario, and considering the interest and faith that people have on herbal products, the need for their standardization cannot be over emphasized. The safety and efficacy of herbal preparations depend largely on the quality of the raw material used.

In this backdrop, ICMR took initiative in evolving quality standards for plants most widely used as raw material in Indian systems of medicine, especially those of Ayurveda. Several reputed institutions are involved in this endeavour. The efforts have so far resulted in bringing out three volumes of Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants carrying monographs on 104 plants. The current publication with Monographs on 32 plants is fourth in the series. I do hope the present volume shall also be received well with all those concerned with medicinal plants. The commendable efforts and co-operation of the Chairman and the members of Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force, the Technical Review Committee as also the investigators and the research institutions in bringing out this publication are appreciable.

 

Preface

Medicinal plants constitute one of the richest bioresource for herbal drugs, food supplements, natural cosmetics, complimentary alternate medicines, phytoconstituents of industrial significance and lead molecules for the development of Allopathic drugs. A number of countries including Germany, France, Canada, USA, China, etc. are registering standardized medicinal plant extracts of proven clinical efficacy and safety as herbal drug preparations or food supplements. Inspite of the fact that India has a vast resource of medicinal plants, we are unable to exploit the growing world market to the required extent because we do not have a very satisfactory system of their quality control and registration. Therefore, it becomes absolutely essential to have quality standards of the raw material.

In this direction, in the year 2000 the ICMR initiated work on quality standards of Indian medicinal plants, involving laboratories of reputed institutes of the country. Three volumes of "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering standards of 104 medicinal plants have already been published. We expect that this fourth volume like the earlier three volumes will also be of interest to the herbal drug industry, practitioners of the Indigenous Systems of Medicine, academicians, researchers, health professionals and regulatory authorities.

 

Introduction

In the National Policy on the Indian Systems of Medicine (ISM) by the Department of A YUSH, priority is being given to research on standardization, pharmacology, toxicology and clinical trails of ISM drugs. In all these studies one important common factor, which can be called the lifeline, is the quality, especially of the raw material, and the crux is the inavailability of methods for the quality assessment.

Currently, the herbal drug preparation itself is regarded as the active substance. Hence the reproducibility of the total configuration of herbal drug constituents is important, and the TLC/GLC/ HPLC fingerprint profiles will serve as guiding line to the phytochemical profile of the drug in ensuring the quality, while quantification of the marker compound/s would serve as an additional parameter in assessing the quality of the sample.

As a part of its ongoing programs, Medicinal Plants Unit of the Indian Council of Medical Research has been bringing out a series of publications on the quality standards of important medicinal plants used in the traditional medicine. This is the fourth volume in the series, "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" containing 32 monographs. Several national institutions have been participating in this national endeavour and just as in the first three volumes, the following guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards for the plants included in this volume.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three different geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The results of experiments conducted and the compiled data are subjected to careful scrutiny by the experts of the Technical Review Committee.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

The monograph starts with the part used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, viz., major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts are given. Under the second category, the chemical constituents which are either present in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed. As far as possible the chemical constituents are grouped together on the basis of clan of compounds. The structures of important compounds and active principles (if known) are given. While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability. TLC is found to be practically more feasible and suitable to resolve most of the components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Detailed description for the analysis of marker compound is given. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: Extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Information is provided wherever available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original research articles published in journals of repute. Clinical trials, wherever conducted have been mentioned.

Major Therapeutic Claims: These are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug mentioned with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dosage: Is taken from the standard Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and / or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC fingerprint details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first three volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix T), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix II), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix Ill), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents and names of plants in other languages.

 

Volume 5

Edition:2008

Foreword

Resurgence of interest in the medicinal plants and their products all over the globe is evident from the rising figures of trade and marketing as well as extensive and intensive scientific publications in the national and international journals. In such a rising global market trend and scientific awareness of medicinal plant products, there exist many fold opportunities in various segments such as traditional medicines, home remedies, nutraceuticals, phytopharmaceuticals, natural drug molecules, gums, mucilages, natural dyes, insect repellants, insecticides, pesticides etc. There are a number of challenges in sustainable industrial exploitation of medicinal plants bioresource for all the segments mentioned. One of the major challenges is inadequacy of quality standards available for producing and maintaining quality and consistency of medicinal plant products. The Indian Council of Medical Research initiated the programme of developing quality standards of Indian medicinal plants in the year 2002. This endeavour yielded very fruit results evidenced by the publication of four volumes of Quality Standards of 136 medicinal plant. Under this continuing programme, this fifth volume comprising quality standards of another 34 Indian medicinal plants is being published. It's a commendable national effort at the appropriate time in the right direction. These quality standards will be of great help to all those engaged in developing various quality products from Indian medicinal plants.

 

Introduction

The medicinal plants have not only been known to be the backbone of all systems of medicine but have been finding extensive place in household remedies, nutraceuticals and cosmetics. In view of the wider acceptance of medicinal plant based products and fast expanding market globally, the quality of the raw material used particularly in the herbal drugs assume special significance in context of experimental studies, clinical trials and therapeutics. Further, the TLC/GLCIHPLC fingerprint profile, as also quantification of the marker compound serve as guiding line to the phytochemical profile of the drug in ensuring the quality.

Medicinal Plants Unit of the Indian Council of Medical Research has been instrumental in developing quality standards of medicinal plants through participation of various reputed institutions, and bringing out a series of publication entitled "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants". The present volume is 5th in this series and contain monographs on 34 plants.

The following major guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards and preparation of the monographs.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The experiments conducted and the compiled data is subjected to careful scrutiny by the experts of the scientific committee. The information incorporated in the monographs is further supported by the photographs of the plant, the part/s of the plant used, microscopic details, the TLC details, chromatograms, etc.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

Each monograph starts with the part(s) used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: Are given with the structures of important compounds and active principles (if known). While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available. The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, viz.; major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts. Under the second category of other chemical constituents which are in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles which have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability. TLC is found to be more practically feasible and suitable to resolve most of the components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Are described in detail for the analysis of marker compound. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: With respect to extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Are given wherever information is available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute. Clinical trials, wherever conducted have been mentioned.

Major Therapeutic Claims: Are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug is mentioned with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dosage: Is taken from the Standard Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC finger print details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first four volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix II), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix III), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents and names of plants in other languages.

 

Volume 6

Edition: 2008

 

Foreword

There has been global emphasis on the importance of standardization of herbal drugs particularly for delivering improved health care. The need for standardization has been recognized time and again world over at different global forums by various national and international agencies including WHO. Inadequacy or lack of standardization of raw material has been one of the most constraining factors in our ability to exploit the fast growing world market of herbal drugs to the required extent, despite India being credited with unique heritage of abundant biodiversity. These plant based drugs would be much more widely used nationally and internationally, with wider acceptance, for enhanced health care if the standardization provides creditability to the quality of the medicine used, In the time to come, only those countries with well established standards of herbal drugs can hope to exploit the worldwide growth in the use of herbal products.

It becomes imperative, therefore to have quality standards of the raw material used in various plant based products.

The Council's initiative to develop Quality Standards of Indian medicinal plants with major focus on diagnostic features, chromatographic profile, markers and overview of multidisciplinary information/data, shall be of importance and relevance for the herbal drug industry, researchers, health professionals, regulatory authorities, policy makers and others interested in the area of medicinal plants, The initiative may eventually help in development of quality assured safe herbal drugs for health care.

 

Preface

The medicinal plants have not only been known to be the backbone of all systems of medicine but have been finding extensive place in household remedies, nutraceuticals and cosmetics. In view of the wider acceptance of medicinal plant based products and fast expanding market globally, the quality of the raw materials used in the herbal drugs assumes special significance particularly in context of conducting experimental studies, clinical trials and their therapeutic value.

In this backdrop, the Medicinal Plants Unit of ICMR took initiatives in the year 2000 for developing Quality Standards of medicinal plants for more widely used raw materials. Several reputed institutions were involved.

The monographs are on the pattern of WHO guidelines and incorporate the diagnostic features, phytochemical studies including marker compound, information on pharmacological, clinical, toxicological aspects, dosage, adulterants/substitutes etc. The fingerprint profile (TLC/GLCIHPLC), as also quantification of the marker compound may serve as guiding line to the phytochemical profile of the drug in ensuring the quality.

As part of this initiative, 5 volumes incorporating Quality Standards of 170 medicinal plants have been published. The present volume is 6th in this series and contains quality standards of another 35 plants. These monographs are outcome of the ICMR programme carried out at Agharkar Research Institute, Pune; BV Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development Centre, Ahmedabad; Captain Srini vasa Murti Drug Research Institute for Ayurveda, Chennai; Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal and National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow.

It is hoped that the current volume like the previous volumes shall be useful to all those concerned with medicinal plants and their products.

 

Introduction

Lack of quality standards of the raw material has been one of the major lacuna in the wider acceptance of plant based drugs. Medicinal Plants Unit of the Indian Council of Medical Research has initiated a programme for the preparation of quality standards for herbal raw materials involving several research institutes of Country to address this problem. This programme has resulted in publication of five volumes on "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering 170 plants. The present volume is 6th in this series and contains monographs on 35 plants.

The following major guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards and preparation of the monographs.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The experiments conducted and the compiled data is subjected to careful scrutiny by the experts of the scientific committee. The information incorporated in the monographs is further supported by the photographs of the plant, the part/s of the plant used, microscopic details, the TLC details, chromatograms, etc.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

Each monograph starts with the part/s used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder, Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: Are given with the structures of important compounds and active principles (if known). While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available. The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, viz.; major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts. Under the second category of other chemical constituents which are in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles which have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability are given. TLC is found to be more practically feasible and suitable to resolve most of the components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Are described in detail for the analysis of marker compound. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: With respect to extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Are given wherever information is available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute. Clinical trials, wherever conducted have been mentioned.

Major Therapeutic Claims: Are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug is mentioned with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dose: Is taken from the Standard Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published. The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC finger print details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first five volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix II), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix ill), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents and names of plants in other languages.

 

Volume 7

Edition: 2008

 

Foreword

In recent years, the worldwide interest in herbal products has grown significantly particularly for delivering improved health care. With an increasing global demand for herbal medicines, it is necessary that the quality and the consistency of these drugs is maintained for their maximal efficacy. Inadequacy or lack of standardization of raw materials has been one of the most constraining factors in our ability to exploit the fast growing world market of herbal drugs to the required extent, despite India being credited with unique heritage of abundant biodiversity. These plant based drugs would be much more widely used both nationally and internationally, with wider acceptance, for enhanced health care if the standardization provides creditability to the quality of the medicine used.

It becomes imperative, therefore to have quality standards of the raw material used in various plant based products.

The council's initiative to develop Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants with major focus on diagnostic features, chromatographic profiles, markers and overview of multidisciplinary information/data, shall be of importance and relevance for the herbal drug industry, researchers, health professionals, regulatory authorities, policy makers and others interested in the area of medicinal plants. The initiative may eventually help in development of quality assured safe herbal drugs for health care.

I deeply appreciate the efforts of the Chairman, the members of the Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force, the Technical Review Committee, investigators and the research institutes who have contributed to the significant task of developing quality standards.

 

Preface

The medicinal plants have not only been known to be the backbone of all systems of medicine but have been finding extensive place in household remedies, nutraceuticals, phytochemicals, natural drug molecules, gums, mucilages, natural dyes, insecticides, pescticides and cosmetics. In view of the wider acceptance of medicinal plant based products and fast expanding market globally, the quality of the raw materials used in the herbal drugs assumes special significance particularly in context of conducting experimental studies, clinical trials and their respective therapeutic value.

In this backdrop, the Medicinal Plants Unit of ICMR took initiatives for developing Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants for more widely used raw materials. Several reputed institutions were involved.

The monographs are on the pattern of WHO guidelines and incorporate the diagnostic features, phytochemical studies including marker compound, information on pharmacological, clinical, toxicological aspects, dosage, adulterants/substitutes etc. The fingerprint profile (TLC/GLC/HPLC), as also quantification of the marker compound may serve as guiding line to the phytochemical profile of the ensuring the quality.

As part of this initiative, 6 volumes incorporating Quality Standards of 205 medicinal plant have been published. The present volume is T" in this series and contains quality standards of another 34 plant . These monographs are outcome of the ICMR programme carried out at Agharkar Research Institute, Pune; BV Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development Centre, Ahemdabad; Captain Srinivas Murti Drug Research Institute for Ayurveda, Chennai; Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal and National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow.

We hope that the current volume like the earlier six volumes shall be useful to all those concerned with medicinal plants and their products.

 

Introduction

Lack of quality standards of the raw material has been one of the major lacuna in the wider acceptance of plant based drugs. Medicinal Plants Unit of the Indian Council of Medical Research has initiated a programme for the preparation of quality standards for herbal raw' materials involving several research institutes of the country to address this problem. This programme has resulted in publication of six volumes on "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering 205 plants. The present volume is T" in this series and contains monographs on 34 plants.

The following major guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards and preparation of the monographs.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The experiments conducted and the compiled data is subjected to careful scrutiny by the experts of the scientific committee. The information incorporated in the monographs is further supported by the photographs of the plant, the part/s of the plant used, microscopic details, the TLC details, chromatograms, etc.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

Each monograph starts with the part(s) used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: Are given with the structures of important compounds and active principles (if known). While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available. The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, viz.; major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in, significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts are given. Under the second category, the chemical constituents which are either present in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profile which have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability are given. TLC i found to be more practically feasible and suitable to resolve mo t of the components of the extract under study. A far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Are described in detail for the analysis of marker compound. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: With respect to extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Are given wherever information is available and distinguishing feature is cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute. Clinical trials, wherever conducted have been mentioned.

Major Therapeutic Claims: Are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug along with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dose: Is taken from the classical Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC fingerprint details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first ix volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix 11), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix 11I), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents and names of plants in other languages.

 

Volume 8

Edition: 2010

 

Foreword

Medicinal plants play a significant role both in the developed and developing countries in providing health benefits to human beings. Over the last few decades alternative medicine, which is essentially plant based, has experienced a remarkable and steady increase all over the world. This has generated a multifaceted interest in the medicinal plants, which includes the sourcing of raw material (through cultivation or from wild populations), preparation of formulations, multi marker based phytochemical evaluation for standardization, molecular target/cell/enzyme based assays, pharmacological, toxicological and clinical evaluation to establish efficacy and safety, of single drugs as well as polyherbal formulations and their large scale manufacture and marketing. In such a scenario proper quality control of the herbal raw as well as the finished products becomes essential. This activity has necessitated the requirement of good quality of raw material, consequently it became important to establish quality parameters for the herbal raw material.

Indian Council of Medical Research has taken the initiative to lay down quality standards of important medicinal plants, as per WHO guidelines. Reputed institutes have been involved to evolve these standards. Vital data generated at these institutes and compilation of the requisite information from literature has resulted in the production of this volume, which is the eighth in the series and deals with 35 medicinal plants.

I deeply appreciate the efforts of the Chairman and the members of the various committees viz., Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force and the Technical Review Committee. The work would not have been possible but for the important role played by the collaborative Institutions.

Despite certain limitations, that these standards may have, it is a step towards improving the quality of finished products. Better quality would inevitably help in raising the acceptance of Indian plant based health care products. These quality standards will be of great help to all those engaged in developing various quality products from Indian medicinal plants.

 

Preface

In India almost 90 per cent of the raw material for herbal medicinal products is procured by the industry from wild sources, there is every possibility of vast variation of chemical constituents in the material collected from different geographical sources. In addition there is a possibility of deliberate adulteration or substitution in the genuine raw material. In such a scenario proper quality control of the herbal raw material as well as finished products becomes essential.

In an effort to address this problem, the ICMR initiated work on Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants, involving laboratories of reputed institutes of the country to generate requisite data as per prescribed format for preparing monographs.

Each monograph is titled with botanical nomenclature and incorporates diagnostic macro and microscopic features, phytochemical constituents, identification by chromatographic fingerprints (TLC/GLC/HPLC), quantitative determination of the phytochemical marker using marker compound, information on pharmacological, clinical, toxicological aspects, dose, adulterants/substitutes etc.

The present 8th volume in the series of already published 7 volumes contains quality standards of 35 plants. The present Monographs are outcome of the ICMR programme carried out at Agharkar Research Institute, Pune; B. V. Patel Pharmaceutical Education & Research Development Centre, Ahmedabad; Captain Srinivasa Murti Drug Research Institute for Ayurveda, Chennai; Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal; National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow; School of Natural Product Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata; University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh.

It is hoped that the current volume like the previous volumes will also be of interest to the herbal drug industry, practitioners of the Indigenous Systems of Medicine, academicians, researchers, health professionals and regulatory authorities.

 

Introduction

Lack of quality standards of the raw material has been one of the major lacuna in the wider acceptance of plant based drugs. Medicinal Plants Unit of the Indian Council of Medical Research has initiated a programme for the preparation of quality standards for herbal raw materials involving several research institutes of country to address this problem. This programme has resulted in publication of seven volumes on "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering 239 plants. The present volume is 8th in this series and contains monographs on 35 plants.

The following major guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards and preparation of the monographs.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The experiments conducted and the compiled data is subjected to careful scrutiny by the experts of the scientific committee. The information incorporated in the monographs is further supported by the photographs of the plant, the part/s of the plant used, microscopic details, the TLC details, chromatograms, etc.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

Each monograph starts with the parte(s) used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant. Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: Are given with the structures of important compounds and active principles (if known). While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available. The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, viz., major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts. Under the second category, the chemical constituents which are either present in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles which have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability are given. TLC is found to be more practically feasible and suitable to resolve most of the components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Are described in detail for the analysis of marker compound. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: With respect to extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Are given wherever information is available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological, clinical and other biological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute.

Major Therapeutic Claims: Are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug along with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dose: Is taken from the Classical Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC finger print details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first seven volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix II), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix III), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents and names of plants in other languages.

 

Volume 9

Edition: 2011

 

Foreword

One of the stumbling blocks in the popularity and wider acceptance of herbal drugs is the inadequacy or lack of standards. This is primarily attributed to the raw material which is not of desired quality, as required for reliable biological, pharmacological and clinical evaluation besides their use in health. Therefore, it is imperative to ensure proper safety and adequate standards along with accurate information available to those who wish to conduct research and commercialize the product outcome in this area of life science.

Indian Council of Medical Research has taken the initiative to lay down quality standards of important medicinal plants, as per WHO guidelines. Reputed institutes have been involved to evolve these standards. Vital data generated at these institutes and compilation of the requisite information from literature has resulted in the production of this volume, which is ninth in the series and deals with 35 medicinal plants.

I deeply appreciate the efforts of the chairman and the members of the various committees viz., Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force and the Technical Review Committee as also the important role played by the investigators and the collaborative Research Institutions in bringing out this publication.

The plant based drug industry, drug testing laboratories, academicians, researchers, health professionals and regulatory authorities will find this book useful. Despite certain limitations, that these standards may have, it is a step towards improving the quality of finished products.

 

Preface

In India where 90 per cent of the raw material for herbal medicinal products is procured by the industry from wild sources, there is every possibility of vast variation of chemical constituents in the material collected from different geographical sources. In addition there is a possibility of deliberate adulteration or substitution of the genuine raw material. In such a scenario proper quality control of the herbal raw material and finished products become essential. Thus, the need for development of quality standards and preparation of monographs thereof cannot be over emphasized.

In an effort to address this problem, ICMR initiated work on Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal plant, involving laboratories of reputed institutes of the country to generate requisite data as per prescribed format for preparing monographs.

Each monograph is titled with botanical nomenclature and incorporates diagnostic macro and microscopic features, phytochemical constituents, identification by chromatographic fingerprints (TLC/GLCIHPLC), quantitative determination of the phytochemical marker using marker compound and information on pharmacological, clinical, toxicological as well as parts used, dose, adulterants/ substitutes etc.

The present 9th volume in the series of already published 8 volumes contains quality standards of 35 plants. The monographs are outcome of the ICMR programme carried out at B.V. Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development Centre, Ahmedabad, Gujarat; Captain Sriniva a Murti Drug Research Institute for Ayurveda, Chennai, Tamil Nadu; Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal, Kerala and L. M. College of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

Better quality would inevitably help in raising the acceptance of Indian plant based health care products. It is hoped that the current volume like the previous volumes will be of interest to those engaged in developing various quality products from Indian Medicinal Plants.

Preparation of the tenth volume in the series is in progress.

 

Introduction

Lack of quality standards of the raw material has been one of the major lacuna in the wider acceptance of plant based drugs. Medicinal Plants Unit of the Indian Council of Medical Research has initiated a programme for the preparation of quality standards for herbal raw materials involving several research institutes of country to address this problem. This programme has resulted in publication of eight volumes on "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering 274 plants. The present volume is 9th in this series and contains monographs on 35 plants.

The following major guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards and preparation of the monographs.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution ofthe plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The experiments conducted and the compiled data is subjected to careful scrutiny by the experts of the scientific committee. The information incorporated in the monographs is further supported by the photographs of the plant, the part/s of the plant used, microscopic details, the TLC details, chromatograms, etc.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

Each monograph starts with the part(s) used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: Are given with the structures of important compounds and active principles (if known). While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available. The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, viz., major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts. Under the second category, the chemical constituents which are either present in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles which have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability are given. TLC is found to be more practically feasible and suitable to resolve most of the components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Are described in detail for the analysis of marker compound. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: With respect to extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Are given wherever information is available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological, clinical and other biological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute.

Major Therapeutic Claims: Are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug along with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dose: Is taken from the Classical Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC finger print details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first eight volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix II), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix III), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents and names of plants in other languages.

 

Volume 10

Edition: 2012

 

Foreword

The global interest in Medicinal Plants and the fast expanding world market during the last two decades have necessitated quality ensured herbal drugs. An increase in the incidence of toxicity reported due to indiscriminate use, deliberate or undeliberate adulteration/substitution and presence of contaminants in herbal preparations available over the counter and as food supplements make it important to ensure their quality, safety and efficacy. Quality standards of the Indian Medicinal Plants are necessary for the drugs and formulations produced from them to be of adequate quality, safety and efficacy for their wider acceptance and patients interest.

In response to this need, the Indian Council of Medical Research took initiative in the year 2001 to lay down quality standards of important Medicinal Plants as per WHO guidelines. The endeavour yielded very fruitful results evidenced by the publication of 9 volumes of Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants containing 309 monographs. Under this continuing programme, this tenth volume on Quality Standards of another 35 Indian Medicinal Plants is being published.

Despite certain limitations that these standards may have, it is a step towards improving the quality of finished products. Better quality would inevitably help in raising the acceptance of Indian plant based health care products. These quality standards will be of great help to all those engaged in developing various quality products from Indian Medicinal Plants.

I deeply appreciate the efforts of the chairman and the members of the various committees, viz., Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force and the Technical Review Committee as also the important role played by the investigators and the collaborative Research Institutions who have contributed to the significant task of developing quality standards.

 

Preface

Medicinal plants remain the main source of medicines for a large proportion of global population particularly in the developing world. In India the raw material for herbal medicinal products is mostly procured from wild sources, there is every possibility of vast variation of chemical constituents in the material collected from different geographical sources. There is also a possibility of deliberate adulteration and substitution in the genuine raw material. In such a scenario the proper quality control of the herbal raw material as well as the finished products become essential. Moreover, the quality of raw materials used in the herbal drugs assumes special significance particularly in context of conducting experimental studies, clinical trials and their therapeutic value.

The Medicinal Plants Unit of the Indian Council of Medical Research took initiatives for developing Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants for more widely used raw materials involving laboratories of reputed institutes in the country to generate requisite data as per prescribed format for preparing monographs. Each monograph is titled with botanical nomenclature and incorporates diagnostic macro- and microscopic features, phytochemical constitutents, identification by chromatographic fingerprints (TLCIGLCIHPLC), quantitative determination of the phytochemical marker using reference marker compound, information on pharmacological, clinical, toxicological aspects, dose, adulterants / substitutes etc.

The present 10th volume in the series contains quality standards of 35 medicinal plants. The monographs are outcome of the ICMR programme carried out at Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, Maharashtra; Captain Srinivasa Murti Drug Research Institute for Ayurveda, Chennai, Tamil Nadu; Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal, Kerala and L. M. College of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

As with the earlier nine volumes published, the tenth volume in the series is also expected to be well received and useful to the herbal drug industry, practitioners of Indigenous system of Medicine, academicians, researchers and health professionals including regulatory authorities.

Preparation of the Eleventh volume in the series is in progress.

 

Introduction

Lack of quality standards of the raw material has been one of the major lacuna in the wider acceptance of plant based drugs. Medicinal Plants U nit of the Indian Council of Medical Research has initiated a programme for the preparation of quality standards for herbal raw materials involving several research institutes of country to address this problem. This programme has resulted in publication of nine volumes on "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering 309 plants. The present volume is l O" in this series and contain monographs on 35 plants.

The following major guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards and preparation of the monographs.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The experiments conducted and the compiled data is subjected to careful scrutiny by the experts of the scientific committee. The information incorporated in the monographs is further supported by the photographs of the plant, the part/s of the plant used, microscopic details, the TLC details, chromatograms, etc.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

Each monograph starts with the part(s) used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: Are given with the structures of important compound and active principles (if known). While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available. The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, vir., major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts. Under the second category, the chemical constituents which are either present in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles which have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability are given. TLC is found to be more practically feasible and suitable to resolve most of the components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Are described in detail for the analysis of marker compound. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the case, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: With respect to extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Are given wherever information is available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological, clinical and other biological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute.

Major Therapeutic Claims: Are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug along with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dose: Is taken from the Classical Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC finger print detail and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first nine volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix II), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix ill), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents and names of plants in other languages.

 

Volume 11

Edition: 2013

Foreword

Medicinal plants play a significant role both in developed and developing countries in providing health benefits to human beings. Over the last few decades use of complimentary alternative medicines which are essentially plant based, have experienced a remarkable and steady increase in the world. This has generated a multifaceted interest in the medicinal plants including the sourcing of raw material, preparation of formulations, multimarker based phytochemical evaluation for standardization, molecular target based assays, pharmacological, toxicological and clinical evaluation to establish safety and efficacy of single plant drugs as well as polyherbal formulations and their large scale manufacture and marketing. In such a scenario proper quality controls of the herbal raw material as well as the finished products become essential. This activity has necessitated the requirement of good quality of raw material, consequently it became important to establish quality parameters of the raw material.

In response to this need, the Indian Council of Medical Research took initiative in the year 2001 to lay down quality standards of important Medicinal plants as per WHO guidelines. The endeavour yielded very fruitful results evidenced by the publication of 10 volumes of Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants containing 344 monographs. Under this continuing programme, this eleventh volume of Quality Standards of another 35 Indian Medicinal Plants is being published. This endevour may help in improving quality of plant based drugs in our country.

I deeply appreciate the efforts of the chairman and the members of the various committees, viz., Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force and the Technical Review Committee as also the important role played by the investigators and the Collaborative Research Institutions who have contributed to the significant task of developing quality standard monographs.

 

Preface

In India about 90 percent of raw material for herbal medicinal products is procured by the industry from wild sources, there is every possibility of vast variation of chemical constituents in the material collected from different geographical sources. In addition there is a possibility of deliberate adulteration or substitution in the genuine raw material. In such a scenario, proper quality control of the herbal raw material becomes essential.

In an effort to address this problem, the ICMR initiated work an Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants, involving laboratories of reputed institutes of the country to generate requisite data as per prescribed format for preparing monographs.

Each monograph is titled with botanical nomenclature and incorporates diagnostic macro- and microscopic features, phytochemical constituents, identification by chromatographic fingerprints (TLC/GLCIHPLCIHPTLC), quantitative determination of the phytochemical marker using reference phytochemical standards, information on pharmacological, clinical, toxicological aspects, dose, adulterants/substitutes etc.

The present 11th volume in the series of the already published 10 volumes contains quality standards of35 medicinal plants. The present publication is an outcome of the ICMR programme under which work was carried out at Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, Maharashtra; Captain Srinivasa Murti Drug Research Institute for Ayurveda and Siddha, Chennai, Tamil Nadu; Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal, Kerala; Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, Maharashtra; Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi and L. M. College of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

It is hoped that the current volume like the previous ones will also be of interest to the herbal drug industry, pharmaceutical and Ayurvedic academic/research institutes, practitioners of the Indigenous Systems of medicine and health professionals including regulatory authorities.

Preparation of the twelfth volume in the series is in progress.

 

Introduction

Lack of quality standards of the raw material has been one of the major lacuna in the wider acceptance of plant based drugs. Medicinal Plants Unit of the Indian Council of Medical Research has initiated a programme for the preparation of quality standards for herbal raw materials involving several research institutes of the country to address this problem. This programme has resulted in publication often volumes on "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering 344 plants. The present volume is 11th in this series and contains monographs on 35 plants.

The following major guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards and preparation of the monographs.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The experiments conducted and the compiled data is subjected to careful scrutiny by the experts of the scientific committee. The information incorporated in the monographs is further supported by the photographs of the plant, the part/s of the plant used, microscopic details, the TLC details, chromatograms, etc.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

Each monograph starts with the part(s) used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: Are given with the structures of important compounds and active principles (if known). While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available. The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, viz., major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts. Under the second category, the chemical constituents which are either present in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles which have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability are given. TLC is found to be more practically feasible and suitable to resolve most of the components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Are described in detail for the analysis of marker compound. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: With respect to extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Are given wherever information is available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological, clinical and other biological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute.

Major Therapeutic Claims: Are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug along with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dose: Is taken from the Classical Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC finger print details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first ten volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix II), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix III), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents and names of plants in other languages.

 

Volume 12

Edition: 2014

Foreword

Medicinal plants play a significant role both in developed and developing countries in providing health benefits to human beings. Over the last few decades plant based medicines have been steadily gaining importance in the world. This has generated a multifaceted interest in the medicinal plants, including sourcing of raw material, preparation of formulations, multimarker based phytochemical evaluation for standardization, molecular target based assays, pharmacological, toxicological and clinical evaluation to establish safety and efficacy of single drugs as well as polyherbal formulations and their large scale manufacture and marketing. In such a scenario proper quality control of the herbal raw as well as the finished products becomes essential. This activity has necessitated the requirement of good quality of raw material, consequently it became important to establish quality parameters of the raw materials.

In response to this growing need, Indian Council of Medical Research took initiative in the year 200 1 to lay down quality standards of important Medicinal plants as per WHO guidelines. The endeavour yielded very fruitful results evidenced by the publication of 11 volumes of Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants containing 379 monographs. Under this continuing programme, this twelfth volume of Quality Standards of another 35 Indian Medicinal Plants is being published.

Despite certain limitations that these standards may have, it is a step towards improving the quality of finished products.

I deeply appreciate the efforts of the chairman and the members of the various committees, viz., Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force and the Technical Review Committee as well as investigators and the various Research Institutions who have contributed to the significant task of developing quality standard monographs.

 

Preface

In India about 90 per cent of raw material for herbal medicinal products is procured by the industry from wild sources, there is every possibility of vast variation of chemical constituents in the material collected from different geographical sources. In addition there is a possibility of deliberate adulteration or substitution in the genuine raw material. In such a scenario proper quality control of the herbal raw material as well as finished products becomes essential.

In an effort to address this problem, ICMR initiated work on Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants, involving laboratories of reputed institutes of the country to generate requisite data as per prescribed format for preparing monographs.

Each monograph is titled with botanical nomenclature and incorporates diagnostic macro and microscopic features, phytochemical constituents, identification by chromatographic fingerprints (TLCIGLC/HPLC/HPTLC), quantitative determination of the phytochemical marker using marker compound, information on pharmacological, clinical, toxicological aspects, dose, adulterants/ substitutes etc.

The present 12th volume in the series of the already published 11 volumes contains quality standards of 35 plants. The present publication is an outcome of the ICMR programme under which work was carried out at Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, Maharashtra; Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal, Kerala; Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, Maharashtra and Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi.

It is hoped that the current volume like the previous volumes will also be of interest to the herbal drug industry, pharmaceutical and Ayurvedic academic/research institutes, practitioners of the Indigenous systems of medicine and health professionals including regulatory authorities.

Preparation of the thirteenth volume in the series is in progress.

 

Introduction

Lack of quality standards of the raw material has been one of the major lacuna in the wider acceptance of plant based drugs. Medicinal Plants Unit of the Indian Council of Medical Research has initiated a programme for the preparation of quality standards for herbal raw materials involving several research institutes of the country to address this problem. This programme has resulted in publication of eleven volumes on "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering 379 plants. The present volume is 12th in this series and contains monographs on 35 plants.

The following major guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards and preparation of the monographs.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The experiments conducted and the compiled data is subjected to careful scrutiny by the experts of the scientific committee. The information incorporated in the monographs is further supported by the photographs of the plant, the part/s of the plant used, microscopic details, the TLC details, chromatograms, etc.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

Each monograph starts with the part(s) used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: Are given with the structures of important compounds and active principles (if known). While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available. The chemical constituents are listed under two sub heads, viz., major and others. Under the former category, the chemical constituents which are either present in significant amount in the drug or are important from the activity point of view (active principle of the drug), even if present in relatively small amounts. Under the second category, the chemical constituents which are either present in small amount or their contribution towards the activity of the drug is not known, are listed.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles which have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability are given. TLC is found to be more practically feasible and suitable to resolve most of the components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Are described in detail for the analysis of marker compound. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: With respect to extractive values and ash values, these are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Are given wherever information is available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological, clinical and other biological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute.

Major Therapeutic Claims: Are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug along with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dose: Is taken from the Classical Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC finger print details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first eleven volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix II), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix III), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents, names of plants in other languages and a list of monographs published in the earlier volumes (Vols 1-11).

 

Volume 13

 

Preface

In India about 90 percent of raw material for herbal medicinal products is procured by the industry from wild sources, there is every possibility of vast variation of chemical constituents in the material collected from different geographical sources. In addition there is a possibility of deliberate adulteration or substitution in the genuine raw material. In such a scenario proper quality control of the herbal raw material as well as finished products becomes essential.

In an effort to address this problem, ICMR initiated work a Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants, involving laboratories of reputed institutes of the country to generate requisite data as per prescribed format for preparing monographs.

Each monograph is titled with botanical nomenclature and incorporates diagnostic macro- and microscopic features, phytochemical constituents, identification by chromatographic fingerprints, (TLC/GLC/HPL/HPTLC), quantitative determination of the phytochemical marker using marker compound, information on pharmacological, clinical, toxicological aspects, dose, adulterants/ substitutes etc.

The present 13th volume in the series of already published 12 volumes contains quality standards of 35 plants. The present publication is an outcome of the ICMR programme under which work was carried out at Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, Maharashtra; Captain Srinivasa Murti Drug Research Institute for Ayurveda, Chennai, Tamil Nadu; Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal, Kerala; Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, Maharashtra and Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi.

It is hoped that the current volume like the previous volumes will also be of interest to the herbal drug industry, pharmaceutical and Ayurvedic academic/research institutes, practitioners of the Indigenous systems of medicine and health professional including regulatory authorities.

Preparation of the fourteenth volume in the series is in progress.

 

Introduction

Lack of quality standards of the raw material has been one of the major lacuna in the wider acceptance of plant based drugs. Medicinal Plants Division of the Indian Council of Medical Research has initiated a programme for the preparation of quality standards for herbal raw materials involving several research institutes of country to address this problem. This programme has resulted in publication of twelve volumes on "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering 414 plants. The present volume is 13th in this series and contains monographs on 35 plants.

The following major guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards and preparation of the monographs.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The experiments conducted and the compiled data is subjected to careful scrutiny by the exerts of the scientific committee. The information incorporated in the monographs is further supported by the photographs of the plant, the parts of the plant used, microscopic details, the TLC details, chromatograms, etc.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

Each monograph starts with the part(s) used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: Are given with the structures of important compounds and active principles (if known). While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles which have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability are given. TLC is found to be more practically feasible and suitable to resolve most of the components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Are described in detail for the analysis of marker compound. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: With respect to extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Are given wherever information is available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological, clinical and other biological activities of the part of the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute.

Major Therapeutic Claims: Are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug along with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dose: Is taken from the Classical Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC finger print details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first twelve volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix II), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix III), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents, names of plants in other languages and a list of monographs published in the earlier volumes (Vols 1-12).

 

Foreword

Medicinal Plants play a significant role both in developed and developing countries in providing health benefits to human beings. Over the last few decades plant based medicines have been steadily gaining importance in the world. This has generated a multifaceted interest in the Medicinal Plants, including sourcing of raw material, preparation of formulations, multimarker based phytochemical evaluation for standardization, molecular target based assays, pharmacological, toxicological and clinical evaluation to establish safety and efficacy of single drugs as well as polyherbal formulations and their large scale manufacture and marketing. In such a scenario proper quality control of the herbal raw as well as the finished products becomes essential. This activity has necessitated the requirement of good quality of raw material, consequently it became important to establish quality parameters of the raw materials.

In response to this growing need, Indian Council of Medical Research took initiative in the year 2001 to lay down quality standards of important Medicinal Plants as per WHO guidelines. The endeavour yielded very fruitful results evidenced by the publication of 12 volumes of Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants containing 414 monographs. Under this continuing programme, this thirteenth volume of Quality Standards of another 35 Indian Medicinal Plants is being published.

Despite certain limitations that these standards may have, it is a step towards improving the quality of finished products.

I deeply appreciate the efforts of the chairman and the members of the various committees, viz., Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force and the Technical Review Committee as well as investigators and the various Research Institutions who have contributed to the significant task of developing quality standard monographs.

 

Volume 14

 

Foreword

The global interest in Medicinal Plants and the fast expanding world market during the last two decades have necessitated quality ensured herbal drugs. An increase in the incidence of toxicity reported due to indiscriminate use, deliberate or undeliberate adulteration/substitution and presence of contaminants in herbal preparations available over the counter and as food supplements make it important to ensure their quality. Quality Standards of the Indian Medicinal Plants are necessary for the drugs and formulations produced from them to be of adequate quality, safety and efficacy for their wider acceptance and patients interest.

In response to this growing need, Indian Council of Medical Research took initiative in the year 2001 to lay down quality standards of important Medicinal Plants as per WHO guidelines. The endeavour yielded very fruitful results evidenced by the publication of 13 volumes of Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants containing 449 monographs. Under this continuing programme, this fourteenth volume of Quality Standards of another 35 Indian Medicinal Plants is being published.

Despite certain limitations that these standards may have, it is a step towards improving the quality of finished products.

I deeply appreciate the efforts of the chairman and the members of the various committees, viz., Scientific Advisory Group, the Task Force and the Technical Review Committee as well as investigators and the various Research Institutions who have contributed to the significant task of developing quality standard monographs.

 

Preface

Medicinal plants remain the main source of medicines for a large proportion of global population particularly in the developing world. In India the raw material for herbal medicinal products is mostly procured from wild sources, there is every possibility of vast variation of chemical constituents in the material collected from different geographical sources. There is also a possibility of deliberate adulteration and substitution in the genuine raw material. In such a scenario the proper quality control of the herbal raw materials as well as the finished products become essential. Moreover, the quality of raw materials used in the herbal drugs assumes special significance particularly in context of conducting experimental studies, clinical trials and their therapeutic value.

The Medicinal Plants Division of the Indian Council of Medical Research took initiatives for developing Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants for more widely used raw materials involving laboratories of reputed institutes in the country to generate requisite data as per prescribed format for preparing monographs. Each monograph is titled with botanical nomenclature and incorporats diagnostic macro- and microscopic features, phytochemical constitutents, identification by chromatographic fingerprints (TLC/GLC/HPLCIHPTLC), quantitative determination of the phytochemical marker using reference marker compound, information of pharmacological, clinical, toxicological aspects, dose, adulterants / substitutes etc.

The present 14th volume in the series of already published l3 volumes contains quality standards of 35 plants. The present publication is an outcome of the ICMR programme under which work was carried out at Captain Srinivasa Murti Drug Research Institute for Ayurveda, Chennai, Tamil Nadu; Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal, Kerala and Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, Maharashtra.

It is hoped that the current volume like the previous volumes will also be of interest to the herbal drug industry, pharmaceutical and Ayurvedic academic/research institutes, practitioners of the Indigenous systems of medicine and health professional including regulatory authorities.

Preparation of the fifteenth volume in the series is in progress.

 

Introduction

Lack of quality standards of the raw material has been one of the major lacuna in the wider acceptance of plant based drugs. Medicinal Plants Division of the Indian Council of Medical Research has initiated a programme for the preparation of quality standards for herbal raw materials involving several research institutes of country to address this problem. This programme has resulted in publication of thirteen volumes on "Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants" covering 449 plants. The present volume is 14th in this series and contains monographs on 35 plants.

The following major guidelines have been adopted in evolving the standards and preparation of the monographs.

The raw material of the plants is procured from the field, from at least three geographical locations and authenticated. The samples are worked out for their pharmacognostic and phytochemical features through experiments while the information on the distribution of the plants, vernacular names, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, safety aspects, clinical studies if any, therapeutic claims and any other details are derived from the published literature and compiled in the form of a monograph, along with complete references of the work cited. The experiments conducted and the compiled data is subjected to careful scrutiny by the experts of the scientific committee. The information incorporated in the monographs is further supported by the photographs of the plant, the part/s of the plant used, microscopic details, the TLC details, chromatograms, etc.

The monographs are compiled and presented in a uniform format as described below:

Each monograph starts with the parte s) used, botanical name with authority, synonyms, habit and distribution of the plant.

Other Names: Include vernacular names of the drug (part of the plant that is being used) in different regions of the country.

Description: Contains macroscopy and microscopy of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic characteristics, organoleptic examination of the raw material as well as its powder. Illustrated figures and photographs are also given.

Chemical Constituents: Are given with the structures of important compounds and active principles (if known). While making the structures of the chemical constituents, stereochemistry is also taken into consideration wherever information on stereochemistry of specific compounds is available.

Identity Tests: Chromatographic fingerprint profiles which have been generated using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or gas liquid chromatography, as per the suitability are given. TLC is found to be more practically feasible and suitable to resolve most of the Components of the extract under study. As far as possible, fingerprint profiles are given along with a marker compound.

Assay/Analytical Methods: Are described in detail for the analysis of marker compound. In certain cases, chemical groups are estimated. In all the cases, sample preparation is optimized to enable complete extraction of compounds of interest.

Quantitative Standards: With respect to extractive values and ash values are derived by employing standard methodology and techniques as given in the Indian Pharmacopoeia or Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or WHO guidelines for Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants.

Adulterants/Substitutes: Are given wherever information is available and distinguishing features are cited with appropriate references.

. Pharmacology: Includes important pharmacological, clinical and other biological activities of the part or the plant described as drug. The information is derived in majority of the cases from the original published articles in journals of repute.

Major Therapeutic Claims: Are derived from classical texts of Ayurveda with appropriate references and also other standard publications or evidenced by clinical trials reported in the literature.

Safety Aspects: Incorporates data available on the drug along with appropriate references. If no specific toxicity is reported, it is considered to be safe in the dose traditionally used.

Dose: Is taken from the Classical Ayurvedic texts or from literature, if published.

The monograph is supported by colour photographs of the plant, the part of the plant used as drug, photomicrographs and/or camera lucida diagrams of the sections of the drug, and TLC finger print details and chromatograms, supported with complete references of the work cited.

In the initial pages of the book abbreviations used are listed, and the plants included in the first thirteen volumes are also listed for ready reference. Towards the end of the volume, relevant appendices are included, carrying details of the methods for pharmacognostic evaluation of the raw material which includes macroscopic, microscopic studies and the quantitative standards (Appendix I), phytochemical evaluation (Appendix 11), methods for the isolation of markers (Appendix Ill), methods of drying and storage of raw material (Appendix IV), limits of pesticide residues and microbial contamination (Appendix V) and plants allocated to various institutes for preparing the monographs (Appendix VI). The appendices section is followed by indices on the botanical names, chemical constituents, names of plants in other languages and a list of monographs published in the earlier volumes (Vols 1-13).

 

Content Volume 1

 

  Message v
  Foreword vii
  Preface ix
  Acknowledgements xi
  Abbreviations xii
  Introduction xv
  Monographs  
1 Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet 1
2 Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Willd. 7
3 Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Johnston var. euchroma 13
4 Artemisia annua Linn. 21
5 Asparagus racemosus Willd. 27
6 Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. forma ligulata Yeo 34
7 Butea monosperma (Lamk.) Taub. 40
8 Cassia occidentalis Linn. 47
9 Cassia senna Linn. var. senna 57
10 Cinchona officinalis Linn.f. 65
11 Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl 74
12 Curcuma amada Roxb. 82
13 Cyperus rotundus Linn. 89
14 Elettaria cardamomum (Linn.) Maton 95
15 Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) Schult. 102
16 Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roth) DC. 109
17 Jatropha glandulifera Roxb. 117
18 Lawsonia inermis Linn. 123
19 Moringa oleifera Lamk. 130
20 Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) DC. 136
21 Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng. 142
22 Myristica fragrans Houtt. 150
23 Nigella sativa Linn. 161
24 Piper longum Linn. 168
25 Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC. 174
26 Sida acuta Burm. f. ssp. acuta 181
27 Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers. 187
28 Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. 198
29 Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. 205
30 Tinospora cordifolia (Will. ) Miers ex Hook.f. & Thoms. 212
31 Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merrill 219
32 Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) Merrill 226
  Appendices  
I Evaluation of crude drugs 235
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 238
III Methods for the isolation of markers 242
IV Drying and storage of raw material 243
V Pesticides, residues and microbial contamination 244
VI Plants allocated to various Institutes 246
  Indices  
I Botanical names 247
II Chemical constituents 249
III Other names of the plants 255

 

Content Volume 2

 

  Foreword v
  Preface vii
  Acknowledgements viii
  Abbreviations ix
  Introduction xi
  Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants Covered in Volume-1 xiii
  Monographs  
1 Albizia lebbeck (Linn.) Benth 1
2 Aristolochia indica Linn 9
3 Boswellia serrata Roxb. Ex Cloebr 19
4 Caesalpinia bonduc (Linn.) Roxb. emend. Dandy & Exell 25
5 Calotropis giganted (Linn.) R. Br. 34
6 Cassia fistula Linn. 47
7 Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Don 54
8 Cissus quadrangularis Linn 62
9 Convolvulus microphyllus Sieb. ex Spreng 70
10 Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn.) Colebr. 79
11 Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) soo 87
12 Digitalis lanata Ehrh 94
13 Euphorbia prostrata W. Ait 103
14 Euphorbia tirucalli Linn 112
15 Hemidesums indicus (Linn.) R. Br. 119
16 Hibiscus rosa- sinensis Linn 129
17 Hypericum perforatum Linn 136
18 Leucas cephalotes (Roth) Spreng 146
19 Malaxis acuminata D. Don 155
20 Mimusops elengi Linn 161
21 Ocimum basilicum Linn 168
22 Ocimum gratisslimum Linn 176
23 Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn. 184
24 Rauvolfia tetraphylla Linn. 193
25 Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde 201
26 Sida rhombifolia Linn. ssp. rhombifolia 209
27 Silybum marianum (Linn.) Gaertn. 217
28 Streblus asper Lour. 227
29 Taxus wallichiana Zucco 235
30 .Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) wight & Arn 243
31 Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K.Schum. 253
32 Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. 261
  Appendices  
I Evaluation of crude drugs 273
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 276
III Methods for the isolation of markers 280
IV Drying and storage of raw material 282
V Pesticide residues and microbial contamination 283
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 285
  Indices  
I Botanical names 286
II Chemical constituents 288
III Other names of the plants 296

 

Content Volume 3

 

  Foreword v
  Preface vii
  Acknowledgements viii
  Abbreviations ix
  Introduction xiii
  Contents of Volume 1 (Plants covered) xv
  Contents of Volume 2 (Plants covered) xvi
  Monographs:  
1 Adhatoda beddomei Clarke 1
2. Aerva lanata (Linn.) Juss. 9
3. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. 20
4. Allium cepa Linn. 29
5. Allium sativum Linn. 38
6. Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) R.Br. 48
7. . Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. ex DC.) Wall. ex Guill. & Perr 61
8. Areca catechu Linn. 69
9. Berberis aristata DC. var. aristata 78
10. Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. 88
11. Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew. 98
12. Carissa carandas Linn. 107
13. Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tiruv. ssp. spinosa 115
14. Cichorium intybus Linn .. 126
15. Cinnamomum camphora (Linn.) Presl 135
16. Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) Nees & Eberm. 149
17. Cissampelos pareira Linn. var. hirsuta (Buch.-Ham. ex DC.) Forman 158
18. Clerodendrum serratum (Linn.) Moon 167
19. Commiphora wightii (Arnott) Bhandari 177
20. Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn.f.) Etting. 189
21. Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. ex Kunth 195
22 Enicostemma hysspifolium (Willd.) Verd 203
23 Euphorbia thymifolia Linn 212
24 Ficus virens Ait 222
25 Garcinia gummi-gutta (Linn.)Rob 229
26 Leptadenia retuculata (Retz.) Wight & Arn 236
27 Merremia turpethum (Linn.) shaw & Bhatt 246
28 Mesua ferrea Linn. Var. ferrea 254
29 Momordica charantia Linn 262
30 Nelumbo charantia Linn 271
31 Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn 281
32 Psoralea corylifolia Linn 290
33 Punica granatum Linn 299
34 Rubia cordifolia Linn 307
35 Sapindus laurifolius Vahl 316
36 Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn 328
37 Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem 340
38 Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprague 349
39 Vitex negundo Linn 357
40 Woodfordia fruticosa (Linn.) Kurz 367
  Appendices  
I Evalution of crude drugs 377
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 380
III Methods for the isolation of markers 384
IV Drying and storage of raw material 387
VI Pesticide residues and microbial contamination 388
VII Plants allocated to various institute 390
  Indices  
I Botanical names 392
II Chemical constituents 394
III Other names of the plants 404

 

Content Volume 4

 

  Foreword v
  Preface vii
  Acknowledgements viii
  Abbreviations ix
  Introduction xiii
  Contents of Volume 1 (Plants covered) xv
  Contents of Volume 2 (Plants covered) xvi
  Contents of Volume 3 (Plants covered) xvii
  Monographs:  
1 Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle 1
2 Aesculus indica Colebr. ex Camb. 9
3 Anethum sowa Roxb. ex Flem. 18
4 Asparagus adscendens Roxb. 28
5 Barleria prionitis Linn. 36
6 Cannabis sativa Linn. 46
7 Carum carvi Linn. 57
8 Chlorophytum arundinaceum Baker 67
9 Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrard. 76
10 Clitoria ternatea Linn. 84
11 Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. 92
12 Colchicum luteum Baker 99
13 Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq. 107
14 Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pers. 116
15 Drimia indica (Roxb.) Jessop. 123
16 Embelia ribes Burm.f. 130
17 Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf 137
18 Evolvulus alsinoides (Linn.) Linn. 145
19 Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum.) Heine 154
20 Hyoscyamus niger Linn 161
21 Inula racemosa Hook.f.  
21 Inula racamosa Hook. F. 169
22 Pedalium murex Linn 178
23 Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Clarke 185
24 Podophyllum hexandrum Royle ex Camb 194
25 Saussurea costus (Falc) Lipsch 204
26 Symplocos racemosa Roxb 215
27 Trichosanthes tricuspidata Lour 224
28 Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn 232
29 Valeriana jatamansi Jones 242
30 Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash 251
31 Writhtia tinctoria R. Br. 262
32 Zanthoxylum armatum DC. 271
  Appendices  
I Evaluation of crude drugs 281
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 284
III Methods for the isolation of markers 288
IV Drying and storage of raw material 292
V Pesticide residues and microbial contamination 293
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 295
  Indices  
I Botanical names 296
II Chemical constituents 298
III Other names of the plants 310

 

Content Volume 5

 

  Foreword  
  Preface v
  Acknowledgements vii
  Abbreviations viii
  Introduction ,,~ ix
  Contents of Volume 1 (Plants covered) xiii
  Contents of Volume 2 (Plants covered) xv
  Contents of Volume 3 (Plants covered) xvi
  Contents of Volume 4 (Plants covered) xvii
  Monographs: xix
1 Abelmoschus moschatus (Linn.) Medik.  
2 Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Willd. ex Delile ssp. indica (Benth.) Brenan 1
3 Achillea millefolium Linn. 8
4 Agave americana Linn. 13
5 Alangium salvifolium (Linn.f.) Wang. var. salvifolium 24
6 Altemanthera sessilis (Linn.) R. Br. ex DC. 35
7 Ammi majus Linn. 43
8 Anthocephalus chinensis (Lamk.) A. Rich. ex Walp. 54
9 Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Bojer 63
10 Aristolochia bracteolata Lamk. 75
11 Avicennia officinalis Linn. 84
12 Balanites aegyptiaca (Linn.) Delile 91
13 Basella alba Linn. var. alba 98
14 Bauhinia variegata Linn. 116
15 Bombax ceiba Linn. 125
16 Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl 134
17 Calotropis procera (Ait.) Ait. f. ssp. hamiltonii (Wight) Ali 142
18 Coccinia grandis (Linn.) Voigt. 157
19 Colebrookea oppositifolia Smith 168
20 Cryptolepis buchanani Roem. &: Schult. 176
21 Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. 184
22 Derris indica (Lamk.) Bennet 193
23 Didymocarpus pedicellatus R. Br. 209
24 Erythrina variegata Linn. 221
25 Ferula assa-foetida Linn. 232
26 Haldina cordifolia (Willd. ex Roxb.) Ridsdale 238
27 Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) P1anch. 246
28 Hydnocarpus pentandra (Buch.-Ham.) Oken 256
29 Leucas plukenetii (Roth) Spreng . 265
30 Ocimum sanctum Linn. 275
3l. Oxalis corniculata Linn. 285
32 Peristrophe paniculata (Forssk.) Brummitt 295
33 Pimpinella anisum Linn. 304
34 Salacia chinensis Linn. 313
  Appendices  
I Evalutaion of crude drugs 323
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 326
III Methods for the isolation of markers 330
IV Drying and storage of raw material 334
V Pesticide residue and microbial contamination 335
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 337
  Indices  
I Botanical names 338
II Chemical constituents 340
III Other names of the plants 350

 

Contents Volume 6

 

  Foreword V
  Preface VII
  Acknowledgements VIII
  Abbreviations IX
  Introduction XIII
  Contents of Volume I (Plants covered) XV
  Contents of Volume 2 (Plants covered) XVI
  Contents of Volume 3 (Plants covered) XVII
  Contents of Volume 4 (Plants covered) XIX
  Contents of Volume 5 (Plants covered) XX
  Monographs  
1 Acacia sinuata (Lour.) Merr. 1
2 Acanthus ilicifolius Linn. 11
3 Ailanthus triphysa (Dennst.) Alston 19
4 Anisomeles malabarica (Linn.) R. Br. ex Sims 28
5 Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) Parker 37
6 Bixa orellana Linn. 46
7 Blumea lacera (Burm.f.) DC. 55
8 Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. 64
9 Cassia tora Linn. 76
10 Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. & Panz.) Swingle 86
11 Cleome gynandra Linn. 93
12 Curcuma aromatica Salisb. 101
13 Datura metel Linn. 110
14 Digitalis purpurea Linn. 124
15 Ficus hispida Linn. f. 133
16 Gloriosa superba Linn. 141
17 Gmelina arborea Roxb. 150
18 Heracleum candicans Wall. ex DC. 159
19 Ipomoea digitata Linn. 168
20 Jasminum auriculatum Vahl 176
21 Madhuca indica J.F. Gmel. 189
22 Myristica malabarica Lamk. 196
23 Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb 205
24 Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. f. 214
25 Rhizophora mucronata Larnk. 224
26 Salvadora persica Linn. 232
27 Santalum album Linn. 241
28 Sarcostemma acidum (Roxb.) Voigt 250
29 Sesamum indicum Linn. 259
30 Sesbania sesban (Linn.) Merr. 269
31 Shorea robusta Gaertn. 282
32 Stereospermum suaveolens (Roxb.) DC. 290
33 Strychnos potato rum Linn. f. 298
34 Terminalia alata Heyne ex Roth 304
35 Terminalia alata Heyne ex Roth 315
  Appendices  
I Evaluataion of crude drugs 325
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 328
III Methods for the isolation of markers 333
IV Drying and storage of raw material 338
V Pesticide residue and microbial contamination 339
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 341
  Indices  
I Botanical names 342
II Chemical constituents 344
III Other names of the plants 350

 

Contents Volume 7

 

  Foreword V
  Preface VII
  Acknowledgements VIII
  Abbrevations IX
  Introduction XIII
  Contents of' Volume I (Plants covered) XV
  Contents of Volume 2 (Plants covered) XVI
  Contents of Volume 3 (Plants covered) XVII
  Contents of Volume 4 (Plants covered) XIX
  Contents of Volume 5 (Plants covered) XX
  Contents of Volume 6 (Plants covered) XXI
  Monographs:  
1 Alhagi pseudalhagi (M.Bieb.) Desv. 1
2 Asclepias curassavica Linn. 13
3 Barringtonia acutangula Gaertn. 29
4 Caesalpinia sappan Linn. 37
5 Costus speciosus (Koen. ex Retz.) LE. Smith 47
6 Crinum asiaticum Linn. 56
7 Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Rose. 67
8 Dillenia indica Linn. 78
9 Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Gaertn.) K. Schum. 86
10 Eucalyptus globulus Labill. 94
11 Ficus benghalensis Linn. 104
12 Ficus religiosa Linn. 114
13 Garcinia indica (Thouars) Choisy 123
14 Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum.) Heine 133
15 Illicium g riffithii Hook.f. & Thoms. 142
16 Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. 152
17 Kaempferia galanga Linn. 162
18 Mallotus philippinensis (Larnk.) Muell.-Arg. 171
19 Nymphaea nouchali Burm.f. 181
20 Nymphaea pubescens Willd. 190
21 Piper betle Linn. 198
22 Plumbago indica Linn. 208
23 Plumbago zeylanica Linn. 218
24 Prunus cerasoides D. Don 227
25 Sesbania bispinosa (Jacq.) W. F. Wight 235
26 Solanum anguivi Lamk. 242
27 Solanum torvum Swartz 254
28 Solanum villosum Mill. ssp. villosum Edmonds 266
29 Spondias pinnata (Linn.f.) Kurz 278
30 Stereospermum suaveolens (Roxb.) DC. 286
31 Syzygium cumini (Linn.) Skeels 295
32 Tamarindus indica Linn. 304
33 Vernonia conyzoides DC. 310
34 Zizyphus jujuba Mill. 321
  Appendices  
I Evaluation of crude drugs 331
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 334
III Methods for the isolation of markers 338
IV Drying and storage of raw material 340
V Pesticide residue and microbial contamination 341
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 343
  Indices  
I Botanical names 344
II Chemical constituents 346
III Other names of the plants 353

 

Contents Volume 8

 

  Foreword V
  Preface VII
  Acknow ledgements VIII
  Abbreviations IX
  Introduction XIII
  Contents of Volume 1 (Plants covered) XV
  Contents of Volume 2 (Plants covered) XVI
  Contents of Volume 3 (Plants covered) XVII
  Contents of Volume 4 (Plants covered) XIX
  Contents of Volume 5 (Plants covered) XX
  Contents of Volume 6 (Plants covered) XXI
  Contents of Volume 7 (Plants covered) XXII
  Monographs:  
1 Abies spectabilis (D. Don) Mirb. 1
2 Abrus precatorius Linn. 9
3 Aegle manne/os (Linn.) Correa 18
4 Aglaia elaeagnoidea (A. Juss.) Benth. 27
5 Ammannia baccifera Linn. 36
6 Amomum subulatum Roxb. 46
7 Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees 55
8 Angelica glauca Edgew. 68
9 Amdirachta indica A. Juss. 77
10 Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Pennell 86
11 Buchanania lanzan Spreng. 97
12 Butea monospenna (Lamk.) Taub. 105
13 Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban 115
14 Centratherum anthelminticum (Li.nn.) Kuntze 128
15 Curcuma longa Linn. 138
16 Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pers. 149
17 Emblica officinalis Gaertn. 160
18 Exacum tetragonum Roxb. 173
19 Helicteres isora Linn. 184
20 Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.-Ham.) Wall. ex G. Don 194
21 Moringa oleifera Lamk. 203
22 Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. 211
23 Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. 220
24 Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. 232
25 Pinus roxburghii Sargent 245
26 Piper nigrum Linn. 255
27 Pseudarthria viscida (Linn.) Wight & Am. 264
28 Rauvolfia serpentina (Linn.) Benth. ex Kurz 272
29 Solanum virginiatum Linn. 283
30 Sterculia urens Roxb. 296
31 Swertia angustifolia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don 302
32 Syzygium aromaticum (Linn.) Merrill & Perry 314
33 Tribulus terrestris Linn. 325
34 Uraria picta (Jacq.) Desv. ex DC. 339
35 Zingiber officinale Rose. 347
  Appendices  
  Evaluation of crude drugs 359
  Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 362
  Methods for the isolation of markers 367
  Drying and storage of raw material 370
  Pesticide residue and microbial contamination 371
  Plants allocated to various institutes 373
  Indices  
  Botanical names 375
  Chemical constituents 377
  Other names of the plants 387

 

Contents Volume 9

 

  Foreword V
  Preface VII
  Acknow ledgements VIII
  Abbreviations IX
  Introduction XIII
  Contents of Volume 1 (Plants covered) XV
  Contents of Volume 2 (Plants covered) XVI
  Contents of Volume 3 (Plants covered) XVII
  Contents of Volume 4 (Plants covered) XIX
  Contents of Volume 5 (Plants covered) XX
  Contents of Volume 6 (Plants covered) XXI
  Contents of Volume 7 (Plants covered) XXII
  Contents of Volume 8 (Plants covered) XXIII
  Monographs :  
1 Acacia catechu (Linn.f.) Willd. 1
2 Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Willd. ex Delile ssp. indica (Benth.) Brenan 10
3 Achyranthes aspera Linn. 18
4 Aloe vera (Linn.) Burm.f. 32
5 Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. 47
6 Boerhavia diffusa Linn. 59
7 1. Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D.Don) G.Don 72
8 Celastrus paniculatus Willd. 81
9 Crocus sativus Linn. 92
10 Cuminum cyminum Linn. 101
11 Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. 113
12 Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC. 122
13 Dioscorea compos ita Hemsl. 131
14 Eclipta prostrata (Linn.) Linn. 138
15 Fagonia indica Burm.f. 152
16 Ficus racemosa Linn. 166
17 Glycyrrhiia glabra Linn. 175
18 Gmelina arborea Roxb. 187
19 Hedychium spicatum Buch.-Ham. ex lE. Smith 196
20 Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum.) Heine 205
21 Luffa acutangula (Linn.) Roxb. 218
22 Melia azedaracn Linn. 234
23 Mentha piperita Linn. 242
24 Mentha spicata Linn. 253
25 Michelia champaca Linn. 262
26 Mimosa pudica Linn. 271
27 Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke 281
28 Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. 292
29 Rheum australe D.Don 301
30 Semecarpus anacardium Linn.f. 311
31 Sida cordifolia Linn. 324
32 Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni 333
33 Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) Karsten 344
34 Withania somnifera (Linn.) Dunal 356
35 Zanthoxylum armatum DC. 368
  Appendices  
I Evaluation of crude drugs 379
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 382
III Methods for the isolation of markers 387
IV Drying and storage of raw material 389
V Pesticide residue and microbial contamination 390
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 392
  Indices  
I Botanical names 394
II Chemical constituents 396
III Other names of the plants 408

 

Contents Volume 10

 

  Foreword V
  Preface VII
  Acknowledgements VIII
  Abbreviations IX
  Introduction XIII
  Contents of Volume 1 (Plants covered) XV
  Contents of Volume 2 (Plants covered) XVI
  Contents of Volume 3 (Plants covered) XVII
  Contents of Volume 4 (Plants covered) XIX
  Contents of Volume 5 (Plants covered) XX
  Contents of Volume 6 (Plants covered) XXI
  Contents of Volume 7 (Plants covered) XXII
  Contents of Volume 8 (Plants covered) XXIII
  Contents of Volume 9 (Plants covered) XXI
  Monographs :  
1 Abroma augusta (Linn.) Linn. f. 1
2 Acacia leucophloea (Roxb.) Willd. 9
3 Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. ex Holmes 17
4 Acorus calamus Linn. 25
5 Amomum subulatum Roxb. 38
6 Apium leptophyllum (Pers.) F. Muell. ex Benth. 48
7 Betula utilis D. Don 59
8 Capparis spinosa Linn. var. spinosa 68
9 Carthamus tinctorius Linn. 80
10 Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. 91
11 Crate va magna (Lour.) DC. 106
12 Cucurbita pepo Linn. 116
13 Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. 126
14 Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (Linn.) Taub. 138
15 Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. 145
16 Datura stramonium Linn. 155
17 Derris indica (Lamk.) Bennet 170
18 Euphorbia hirta Linn. 180
19 Limonia acidissima Linn. 195
20 Mammea suriga (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.) Kosterm. 205
21 Matricaria chamomilla Linn. 215
22 Moringa oleifera Lamk. 230
23 Nardostachys jatamansi DC. 241
24 Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. 251
25 Oroxylum indicum (Linn.) Vent. 261
26 Phyla nodiflora (Linn.) Greene 270
27 Piper cubeba Linn. f. 282
28 Raphanus sativus Linn. 293
29 Ricinus communis Linn. 303
30 Ruta chalepensis Linn. 326
31 Salacia reticulata Wight 334
32 Salvadora persica Linn. 343
33 Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. 352
34 Tridax procumbens Linn. 363
35 Vitex agnus-castus Linn. 376
  Appendices  
I Evaluation of crude drugs 387
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 390
III Methods for the isolation of markers 395
IV Drying and storage of raw material 401
V Pesticide residues and microbial contamination 402
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 404
  Indices  
I Botanical names 406
II Chemical constituents 408
III Other names of the plants 423

 

Contents Volume 11

 

  Foreword V
  Preface VII
  Acknowledgement VIII
  Abbreviations IX
  Introduction XII
  Content of Volume 1 (Plants covered) XIV
  Content of Volume 2 (Plants covered) XV
  Content of Volume 3 (Plants covered) XVI
  Content of Volume 4 (Plants covered) XVIII
  Content of Volume 5 (Plants covered) XIX
  Content of Volume 6 (Plants covered) XX
  Content of Volume 7 (Plants covered) XXI
  Content of Volume 8 (Plants covered) XXII
  Content of Volume 9 (Plants covered) XXIII
  Content of Volume 10 (Plants covered) XXIV
  Monographs:  
1 Acacia pennata (Linn.)Willd. 1
2 Achyranthes bidentata Blume 12
3 Adhatoda zeylanica Medik 25
4 Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson 38
5 Argyreia nervosa (Burm. F.) Bojer 48
6 Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Flower) 58
7 Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Fruit) 68
8 Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Leaf) 83
9 Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Root bark) 98
10 Caesalpinia coriarius (Jacq.) Willd 107
11 Carthamus tinctorius Linn 116
12 Chrysanthemum indicum Linn 125
13 Cinnaamomum zeylanicum Nees (Oil) 135
14 Citrullus colocynthis (Linn) Schrad 142
15 Croton tiglium Linn 151
16 Cucumis melo Linn. Var. utilissimus Duthie & fuller 162
17 Cucumis sativus Linn. 170
18 Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. 179
19 Eupatorium triplinerve vahl 190
20 Euphorbia neriifolia Linn 202
21 Fumaria indica (Haussk.) Pugsley 212
22 Gmelina arborea Roxb. 225
23 Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. 234
24 Ixora coccinea Linn. 242
25 Linum usitatissmum Linn. 253
26 Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) DC. 263
27 Nerium indicum Mill. 271
28 Pavonia odorata Willd. 281
29 Pipper retrofractum Vahl (Fruit) 295
30 Pipper retrofractum Vahl (Stem) 305
31 Plantago ovata Forssk. 315
32 Thymus vulgaris Linn. (Oil) 323
33 Trianthema decandra Linn. 329
34 Vitex negundo Linn. (Fruit) 342
35 Vitex negundo Linn. (Root) 356
  Appendices  
I Evaluation of crude drugs 367
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 370
III Methods for the isolation of markers 376
IV Drying and storage of raw material 379
V Pesticide residue and microbial contamination 380
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 382
  Indices  
I Botanical names 384
II Chemical constituents 386
III Other names of the plants 395

 

Contents Volume 12

 

  Foreword V
  Preface VII
  Acknowledgement VIII
  Abbreviations IX
  Introduction XIII
  Content of Volume 1 (Plants covered) XV
  Content of Volume 2 (Plants covered) XVI
  Content of Volume 3 (Plants covered) XVII
  Content of Volume 4 (Plants covered) XIX
  Content of Volume 5 (Plants covered) XX
  Content of Volume 6 (Plants covered) XXI
  Content of Volume 7 (Plants covered) XXII
  Content of Volume 8 (Plants covered) XXIII
  Content of Volume 9 (Plants covered) XXIV
  Content of Volume 10 (Plants covered) XXV
  Content of Volume 11 (Plants covered) XXVI
  Monographs:  
1 Abrus precatorius Linn. 1
2 Acacia farnesiana (Linn.) Willd. 12
3 Acacia polyacantha Willd. 20
4 Acalypha indica Linn. 28
5 Aconitum ferox Wall. Ex Ser. 41
6 Aconitum violaceum Jacq. Ex stapf. 49
7 Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. 57
8 Aegle maemelos (Linn.) Corr. (Root) 69
9 Aegle maemelos (Linn.) Corr. (Fruit) 79
10 Aesculus hippocastanum Linn. 88
11 Alpinia calcarata Rosc. 100
12 Amaranthus tricolor Linn. 109
13 Ananas comosus (Linn.) Merr. 124
14 Argemone mexicana Linn. 135
15 Buchanania lanzan Spreng. 163
16 Carica papaya Lin. 173
17 Cassia fistula Linn. 186
18 dendrum phlomidis Linn. F. 196
19 Derris indica (Lamk.) Bennet 206
20 Desmodium Gangeticum (Linn.) DC. 216
21 Dryopteris Filix-mas (Linn.) Schott 227
22 Eucalyptus globulus Labill (Oil) 237
23 Getonia floribunda Roxb. (Leaf) 246
24 Getonia floribunda Roxb. (Root) 257
25 Glycine max (Linn.) Merr 265
26 Heliotropium indicum Linn. 276
27 Lepidium sativum Linn. 289
28 Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn. 299
29 Lilium polyphyllum D. Don ex Royle 307
30 Manihot Esculenta Crantz 314
31 Merremia tridentata (Linn.) Hall. F. 324
32 Raphanus sativus Linn. 338
33 Sesamum orientale Linn. (Oil) 351
34 Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. 363
35 Tectona grandis Linn. F. 371
  Appendices  
I Evaluation of crude drugs 383
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 386
III Methods for the isolation of markers 394
IV Drying and storage of raw material 398
V Pesticide residue and microbial contamination 399
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 401
  Indices  
I Botanical names 403
II Chemical constituents 404
III Other names of the plants 411
IV Monographs published in earlier volumes (Vols 1-11) 416
Contents Volume 13

 

  Foreword V
  Preface VII
  Acknowledgements VIII
  Abbreviations IX
  Introduction XIII
  Contents of Volume 1 (Plants covered) XV
  Contents of Volume 2 (Plants covered) XVI
  Contents of Volume 3 (Plants covered) XVII
  Contents of Volume 4 (Plants covered) XIX
  Contents of Volume 5 (Plants covered) XX
  Contents of Volume 6 (Plants covered) XXI
  Contents of Volume 7 (Plants covered) XXII
  Contents of Volume 8 (Plants covered) XXIII
  Contents of Volume 9 (Plants covered) XXIV
  Contents of Volume 10 (Plants covered) XXV
  Contents of Volume 11 (Plants covered) XXVI
  Contents of Volume 12 (Plants covered) XXVII
  Monographs:  
1 Adhatoda zeylanica Medik. 1
2 Ammi visnaga (Linn.) Lamk. 9
3 Amomum aromaticum Roxb 19
4 Angelica archangelica Linn. 29
5 Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. ex DC.) Wall. Ex Guill. & Perr. 39
6 Apium graveolens Linn. 48
7 Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk 63
8 Atropa belladonna Linn. 81
9 Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell.-Arg. (Leaf) 91
10 Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell.-Arg. (Root) 102
11 Bambusa bambos (Linn.) Voss 110
12 Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn. 119
13 Brassica campestris Linn. 128
14 Butea monosperma (Lamk.) Taub. 137
15 Cajanus cajan (Linn.) Millsp. (Seed) 146
16 Cajanus cajan (Linn.) Millsp. (Root) 156
17 Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. (Oil) 165
18 Calotropis procera (Ait.) Dryand. ssp. hamiltonii (Wight) AIi (Stem bark) 172
19 Calotropis procera (Ait.) Dryand. ssp. hamiltonii (Wight) Ali (Root) 179
20 Carissa carandas Linn. 188
21 Cichorium intybus Linn.(Leaf) 197
22 Cichorium intybus Linn. (Fruit) 205
23 Coriandrum sativum Linn. 214
24 Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) W. Wats. 224
25 Datura metel Linn. 236
26 Ficus benghalensis Linn. 244
27 Foeniculum vulgare (Linn.) Mill 254
28 Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall. (Oil) 264
29 Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B. Rob. 269
30 Mangifera indica Linn. 278
31 Pandanus odoratissimus Linn.f 290
32 Portulaca oleracea Linn. 299
33 Rosa x centifolia Linn. 313
34 Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. 323
35 Viola odorata Linn. 330
  Appendices  
I Evaluation of crude drugs 345
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 348
III Methods for the isolation of markers 354
IV Drying and storage of raw material 358
V Pesticide residue and microbial contamination 359
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 361
  Indices  
I Botanical names 363
II Chemical constituents 365
III Other names of the plants 373
IV Monographs published in earlier volumes (Vols 1-12) 380
Contents Volume 14

 

  Foreword V
  Preface VII
  Acknowledgements VIII
  Abbreviations IX
  Introduction XIII
  Contents of Volume 1 (Plants covered) XV
  Contents of Volume 2 (Plants covered) XVI
  Contents of Volume 3 (Plants covered) XVII
  Contents of Volume 4 (Plants covered) XIX
  Contents of Volume 5 (Plants covered) XX
  Contents of Volume 6 (Plants covered) XXI
  Contents of Volume 7 (Plants covered) XXII
  Contents of Volume 8 (Plants covered) XXIII
  Contents of Volume 9 (Plants covered) XXIV
  Contents of Volume 10 (Plants covered) XXV
  Contents of Volume 11 (Plants covered) XXVI
  Contents of Volume 12 (Plants covered) XXVII
  Contents of Volume 13 (Plants covered) XXVIII
  Monographs  
1 Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. 1
2 Adiantum lunulatum Burm. f 9
3 Alectra parasitica A. Rich. ssp. chitrakutensis (M. A. Rau) K. K. Khanna & A. Kumar 20
4 Althaea officinalis Linn. 28
5 Anacardium occidentale Linn. 39
6 Antiaris toxicaria (Pers.) Lesch. 51
7 Apama siliquosa Lamk 60
8 Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk 68
9 Aristolochia indica Linn. 77
10 Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell.-Arg. 88
11 Brassica campestris Linn. (Oil) 97
12 Calamus rotang Linn 103
13 Capsicum annuum Linn 111
14 Careya arborea Roxb 123
15 Cassia fistula Linn. 133
16 Citrus limon (Linn.) Osbeck 141
17 Cyperus scariosus R. Br 153
18 Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr. 162
19 Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. ex Buch.-Ham. 172
20 Gardenia gummifera Linn. f 179
21 Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet 185
22 Ginkgo biloba Linn. 193
23 Hydnocarpus kurzii (King) Warb. 207
24 Illicium verum Hook. f. 216
25 Indigofera tinctorie Linn. 228
26 Juniperus communis Linn. 240
27 Lavandula angustifolia Mill. 249
28 Phyllanthus fraternus Webst. 259
29 Physalis alkekengi Linn. 271
30 Premna serratifolia Linn. 283
31 Prosopis cinererie (Linn.) Druce 293
32 Spondias pinnata (Linn. f.) Kurz 304
33 Syzygium aromaticum (Linn.) Merril & Perry (Oil) 314
34 Toona ciliata M. Roem 322
35 Typha australis K. Schum. & Thonn. 331
  Appendices  
I Evaluation of crude drugs 343
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 346
III Methods for the isolation of markers 353
IV Drying and storage of raw material 355
V Pesticide residue and microbial contamination 356
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 358
  Indices  
I Botanical names 360
II Chemical constituents 361
III Other names of the plants 370
IV Monographs published in earlier volumes (Vols 1-13) 376

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Kailash Raj’s art, as always, is marvelous. We are so grateful to you for allowing your team to do these special canvases for us. Rarely do we see this caliber of art in modern times. Kailash Ji has taken the Swaminaryan monks’ suggestions to heart and executed each one with accuracy and a spiritual touch.
Sadasivanathaswami, Hawaii
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