A multi-deity composition, the pattachitra that you see on this page is a fine example of Indian folk art. A thing of Orissa, pattachitra is the name given to paintings (‘chitra’ is the vernacular word for picture) made on a locally produced, fabric-based canvas called patta. Devotional subject matters are common with pattachitra painters and, as such, the iconographies of the endless Hindu pantheon and episodes of itihasa are found in abundance in these works.
The painting that you see on this page is a composite of multiple deities. Each of them are painted within a panel of its own, arranged over a temple-esque aureole. Poised on a wide-set lotus-shaped plinth, it resembles the very temples that lend Puri, a temple-town and the capital of Orissa, its age-old cityscape. The solid-coloured panels in cerulean, scarlet, and green bring outs the smooth white colour with deep ivory overtones.
In the central panel are the figures of Devi Lakshmi and Devi Sarasvati. They are flanked by Lord Brahma and Lord Garuda to their right and Lord Shiva and Lord Narayana to their left, making for four smaller panels. Set in the templetop, above the five panels described so far, is a circular panel of Lord Ganesha. Except for Lord Garuda and Lord Narayana in the lower panels, the remaining deities are all seated. In the midline of the lotus plinth is a miniscule circular panel featuring a wide-eyed gaja (elephant) gazing with wonder at a lotus in its own forelegs.
The traditional Pattachitra is a scroll painting that is done on
cloth. This is revealed in the name; Pattachitra is a Sanskrit
term made from two words i.e. Patta meaning cloth and Chitra
meaning picture. The main subject of this painting is portraying
Hindu mythological narratives, scenes from religious texts, and
folktales. Pattachitra paintings are especially practiced in
eastern Indian states such as West Bengal and Odisha, and also in
some parts of Bangladesh. This art form is closely related to Shri
Jagannath and the tradition of the Vaishnava sect. It is believed
that Pattachitra art originated in the 11th century and the people
of Odisha practice it even today without any discrepancy. Bengalis
use these scroll paintings for ritual purposes (as a visual
device) during the performance of a song or Aarti.
Pattachitra paintings are characterized by creative and
traditional motifs/designs, decorative borders, and bright
colorful applications. The outline of the figure and motifs are
bold and sharp. Some common shapes and motifs seen in these
paintings are trees, flowers, leaves, elephants, and other
creatures. The artists of Odisha and Bengal still use the
traditional method of painting which gives a unique look to it
The process of painting a Pattachitra begins by preparing the
canvas (patta). Generally, cotton cloth is used for making the
canvas. The local artists dip the cotton cloth in a mixture of
tamarind seeds and water for a few days. The cloth is then taken
out and dried in the sun. Now natural gum is applied over it to
stick another layer of cotton cloth on it. Thus a thick layer of
cotton cloth is formed. This layered cotton is sun-dried and a
paste of chalk powder, tamarind, and gum is applied on both
sides. The surface of the cloth is then rubbed with two
different stones for smoothening and it is again dried. This
process gives the cloth a leathery finish and it is now ready to
The painters prepare and use vegetable and mineral colors for
application in the painting. White color is made from conch
shells, black is made by burning coconut shells, Hingula is used
for red color, Ramaraja for blue, and Haritala for yellow.
The artist now makes a double-lined border on all four sides of
the canvas. The local artists are so expert in painting that
they do not draw figures and motifs with pencil but directly
draw them with a brush. The paint brushes that the painters use
are made of the hair of domestic animals, a bunch of which is
tied to the end of a bamboo stick. The figures are now painted
with natural colors using the indigenous brushes. The outline is
thickened with black color.
Finally, the painting is varnished/glazed to protect it from any
damage and to get a glossy shine on the surface.
The making of a Pattachitra is laborious work and therefore, one
painting may sometimes take over a month to complete. Due to their
classical look, these paintings are admired by people from all
over the world. The artistic skills used in Pattachitra are passed
down from one generation to another and thus are preserved to
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