Subscribe for Newsletters and Discounts
Be the first to receive our thoughtfully written
religious articles and product discounts.
Your interests (Optional)
This will help us make recommendations and send discounts and sale information at times.
By registering, you may receive account related information, our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
.
By subscribing, you will receive our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. All emails will be sent by Exotic India using the email address info@exoticindia.com.

Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
|6
Sign In  |  Sign up
Your Cart (0)
Best Deals
Share our website with your friends.
Email this page to a friend
Books > History > After Timur Left (Culture and Circulation in Fifteenth-Century North India)
Subscribe to our newsletter and discounts
After Timur Left (Culture and Circulation in Fifteenth-Century North India)
Pages from the book
After Timur Left (Culture and Circulation in Fifteenth-Century North India)
Look Inside the Book
Description
About the Book

Timur invaded northern India in 1398 but returned to Samarkand a year later. In 1555 the Timurid emperor Humayun came back to India after being forced into exile in Persia and re- established Mughal rule in northern India. Between these two significant dates stretches an era largely consigned to oblivion-the 'long' fifteenth century.

The Mughal dynasty has long occupied a pre-eminent position in research on Indian history. It has also been credited with ushering in a radically new age of innovation in art, literature, and statecraft. But what of the period before the Mughals?

With the empire-centred study of history privileging periods of political centralization, the multi-centred fifteenth century has remained relatively unexplored and undervalued.

After Timur Left presents a path-breaking interdisciplinary set of writings on the politics, languages, religions, literatures, and arts of the fifteenth century. Together they reveal it to be a period of considerable political and social mobility, of cultural connectivity and consolidation, of innovation in literature and language choices, and of new forms of religious organization and expression.

 

About the Author

Francesca Orsini is Professor of Hindi and South Asian Literature at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Her research spans modern and contemporary Hindi literature, cultural history, popular literature and the history of the book, and multilingual literary history. She is the author of The Hindi Public Sphere ( I920-1940) (2002) and Print and Pleasure (2009).

Samira Sheikh is Associate Professor of History at Vanderbilt University. Nashville. Tennessee. She is the author of Forging a Region: Sultans, Traders and Pilgrims in Gujarat, 1200-1500 (2010). Her current research is on Vaishnavism in Mughal Gujarat, an eighteenth- century Gujarati politician, and early modern Indian maps.

Introduction

Literature and Writing

THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE MUGHALS throw into deep shadow the kingdoms and cultures that preceded them in north India. The Mughals are assumed to have changed everything: politics, literature, religion, even language. But how can we know what the Mughals changed when we know so little of what happened before? What was South Asia like before the Mughals? Most of us associate the preceding period with the 'high' Delhi sultanate with its idiosyncratic rulers, bureaucrats, and historians. But this had come to an end soon after Timur's bloody invasion of north India in 1398. Was the invasion the end of an era? What happened after Timur left?

The 'long fifteenth century' between Timur's invasion and Humayun's return to India in 1555, a time of remarkable change and invention in literature, culture, and politics, forms the chronological core of most of the essays in this volume. This is a period too often masked by the centralizing categories of the Mughal, colonial and postcolonial bureaucracies that were to follow. A quarter century ago, historians began to reveal the eighteenth century as a time of cosmopolitan ferment and experimentation; it is now time to unveil new scholarship on another century too long regarded as backward and interstitial. The conventional periodization that blanks out the long fifteenth century from histories is not because nothing happened then. Quite the opposite; it is the diversity and intensity of politics and culture in this period that have rebuffed scholars searching for singular ideologies or narratives. This was a time of cultural production in languages and idioms that ran into each other, in vernaculars 'literized' for the first time, in the old classical languages modulated for new patrons. There was a certain 'democratization' of written culture: arriviste patrons could have genealogies and tales composed; performers could reinvent the epics for the new world; upwardly mobile chieftains could lay claim to languages and forms from which they were previously excluded. Spiritual yearnings were expressed in new vocabularies: some expressed the injustices of the present, others the worldly and other-worldly aspirations of the new patrons. Political turmoil meant that people travelled: in search of employment or business opportunities, for pilgrimage, war, or pleasure. Thanks to travel, a north Indian vernacular-bhakha-was disseminated and literized across north India while the transregional High Languages of Sanskrit, Arabic, and Persian continued to wield cultural cachet. The decentralization of power also meant that there was a demand for literary specialists as chieftains and merchants all sought poets, composers, and scribes. Many of these specialists were multilingual and travelled widely in search of patrons and opportunities. It is this hybrid, restless, multilingual ferment that nation -centred, monolingual scholarship has been unable to comprehend. How does this plethora of voices and texts relate to fifteenth-century polities? The contribution of this volume is that, for the first time, it foregrounds and embraces the diversity of what we have called the long fifteenth century and investigates the links between politics and cultural production.

Literature as History

Textbooks generally start from ‘hard’ evidence and documents such as coins, inscription, and historical chronicles typically compiled in centres of political power, to which literature and the arts are added as supplementary ornaments, usually under the rubrics of 'patronage' and, in the case of vernacular devotional literature, of an undefined 'popular culture'. But for a richly fluid time like the fifteenth century in north India, literary texts are often the only way we have to write social history, to write individuals and groups, their self-representation and worldview into the picture, which is otherwise a largely empty and dichotomous one of court and people, rulers and dynasties, Muslims and Hindus, men and, of course, hardly any women at all. To study these voices and texts, and to study them in relation to each other and within a wider comparative framework, means attempting to write a thicker and more comprehensive history than that usually available in textbooks. For this reason we have tried to include in this book the widest possible range, not just of cultural production but also of social contexts and types of self-expression, and to connect and intersect them in all possible ways.

The long fifteenth century was not a canon-making period. As Delhi after Timur became just one of many regional power centres (although always one with great symbolic importance), it becomes necessary to adjust our lens and look not for the great bureaucratic projects, imperial histories, or central linguistic and literary experiments of the Mughals, but for other genres of recording and remembering. Simon Digby remarks in this volume that after the relative stability of the greater Delhi Sultanate, the 'lesser' was a time during which few histories were written and from which even fewer survive. This remark is true only if we consider political histories from Delhi-Persian court histories continued to be written in Malwa, Jaunpur (although these do not survive), Gujarat, the Deccan, and in smaller sultanates such as Kalpi. Nevertheless, once we begin to look at other literary survivals and acknowledge how profuse and diverse they are, we find that each genre marks history in its own way. One basic assumption underlying this book is that producing literature in the form of heroic narratives, genealogical accounts, local or caste puranas, or biographies and hagiographies was a way of producing one's own history or inscribing oneself in larger histories. A large and varied body of texts in this period do exactly that-Aparna Kapadia's local Sanskrit narratives, Ramya Sreenivasan's vernacular ones, the Jain genealogies in the Apabhramsha texts of Eva De Clercq's essay, or the Persian texts by provincial Sufis in Francesca Orsini's. These are deliberate attempts by kings, merchants, and spiritual figures, through the medium of professional poets or members of their circles, to create narratives that become the history of their family or lineage and insert their protagonists or patrons into the history of a place or of a wider group. Some such histories are in book or manuscript form, while others are carved on stone inscriptions that record individual achievements and family trees on civic and religious buildings. History can also be found in other genres of texts, including in the many glossaries and dictionaries produced at this time, some that offer etymologies and lexical histories in their explanations, others that signal the linguistic needs of their commissioners and compilers. In the visual realm too, painters represented their surroundings even when they deliberately relocated 'classical' tales to local landscapes and climates, turning them into records of their own times. Many such conceptions of history are explored in this volume.

In addition, the long fifteenth century saw the emergence of the powerful voices and personalities of Ramanand (whatever his historicity), Kabir, Nanak, Raidas, Mira Bai, and Surdas, to name but a few. Although their words (bani) did not attempt to produce history in the same way as the ones mentioned above, they produced history all the same. Through their distinctly new forms of articulation, the rapid circulation of their words, and in a few cases, their active proselytizing, these figures prefigured the creation of widely shared discourses and new groups (called panths). If a new form of literature and its textualization is always linked to the emergence of a new power (with consequent realignments in the field of power), the emergence of these voices denotes a changed polity and the confident assertion of new historical subjects. Even though the words and songs of these charismatic figures were textualized only a century later, they marked as well as produced important socio-historical change. In the century following this textualization, their biographies and hagiographies followed in great number as their followers systematized the memorialization of both panth and bani.

 

Contents

 

  Acknowledgements vii
  Note on Tranliteration ix
  List of Plates and Figures xi
1 Introduction 1
  States, Subjects, and Networks  
2 After Timar Left: North India in the Fifteenth Century 47
3 Bandagi and Naukari: Studying Transitions in Political Culture and Service under the North Indian Sultanates, Thirteenth-Sixteenth Centuries 60
  Public Languages  
4 The Rise of Written Vernaculars: The Deccan 1450-1650 111
5 Turki and Hindavi in the World of Persian: Fourteenth- and Fifteenth- Century Dictionaries 130
6 Local Lexis? Provincializing Persian in Fifteenth- Century North India 166
7 Languages of Public Piety: Bilingual Inscriptions from Sultanate Gujarat, c. 1390-1538 186
  Tellings of Kings, Sufis and Warriors  
8 Universal Poet, Local Kings: Sanskrit, the Rhetoric of Kingship, and Local Kingdoms in Gujarat 213
9 Warrior- Tales at Hinterland Courts in North India,c. 1370-1550 242
10 Emotion and Meaning in Mirigavati: Strategies of Spiritual Signification in Hindavi Sufi Romance 273
  Cultural Spaces and Literary Transactions  
11 The Art of the Book in India under the Sultanates 301
12 Apabhramsha as a Literary Medium in Fifteen- Century North India 339
13 Early Hindi Epic Poetry in Gwalior: Beginnings and Continuities in the Ramayan of Vishnudas 365
14 Traces of a Multilingual World: Hindavi in Persian Texts 403
  Bibliography 437
  About the Editors and Contributors 471
  Index 477
Sample Pages























 

After Timur Left (Culture and Circulation in Fifteenth-Century North India)

Item Code:
NAL717
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2014
ISBN:
9780199450664
Language:
English
Size:
8.5 inch x 5.5 inch
Pages:
512 (6 Color and 5 B/W Illustrations)
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 770 gms
Price:
$55.00
Discounted:
$41.25   Shipping Free - 4 to 6 days
You Save:
$13.75 (25%)
Look Inside the Book
Add to Wishlist
Send as e-card
Send as free online greeting card
After Timur Left (Culture and Circulation in Fifteenth-Century North India)

Verify the characters on the left

From:
Edit     
You will be informed as and when your card is viewed. Please note that your card will be active in the system for 30 days.

Viewed 2128 times since 5th Jan, 2016
About the Book

Timur invaded northern India in 1398 but returned to Samarkand a year later. In 1555 the Timurid emperor Humayun came back to India after being forced into exile in Persia and re- established Mughal rule in northern India. Between these two significant dates stretches an era largely consigned to oblivion-the 'long' fifteenth century.

The Mughal dynasty has long occupied a pre-eminent position in research on Indian history. It has also been credited with ushering in a radically new age of innovation in art, literature, and statecraft. But what of the period before the Mughals?

With the empire-centred study of history privileging periods of political centralization, the multi-centred fifteenth century has remained relatively unexplored and undervalued.

After Timur Left presents a path-breaking interdisciplinary set of writings on the politics, languages, religions, literatures, and arts of the fifteenth century. Together they reveal it to be a period of considerable political and social mobility, of cultural connectivity and consolidation, of innovation in literature and language choices, and of new forms of religious organization and expression.

 

About the Author

Francesca Orsini is Professor of Hindi and South Asian Literature at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Her research spans modern and contemporary Hindi literature, cultural history, popular literature and the history of the book, and multilingual literary history. She is the author of The Hindi Public Sphere ( I920-1940) (2002) and Print and Pleasure (2009).

Samira Sheikh is Associate Professor of History at Vanderbilt University. Nashville. Tennessee. She is the author of Forging a Region: Sultans, Traders and Pilgrims in Gujarat, 1200-1500 (2010). Her current research is on Vaishnavism in Mughal Gujarat, an eighteenth- century Gujarati politician, and early modern Indian maps.

Introduction

Literature and Writing

THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE MUGHALS throw into deep shadow the kingdoms and cultures that preceded them in north India. The Mughals are assumed to have changed everything: politics, literature, religion, even language. But how can we know what the Mughals changed when we know so little of what happened before? What was South Asia like before the Mughals? Most of us associate the preceding period with the 'high' Delhi sultanate with its idiosyncratic rulers, bureaucrats, and historians. But this had come to an end soon after Timur's bloody invasion of north India in 1398. Was the invasion the end of an era? What happened after Timur left?

The 'long fifteenth century' between Timur's invasion and Humayun's return to India in 1555, a time of remarkable change and invention in literature, culture, and politics, forms the chronological core of most of the essays in this volume. This is a period too often masked by the centralizing categories of the Mughal, colonial and postcolonial bureaucracies that were to follow. A quarter century ago, historians began to reveal the eighteenth century as a time of cosmopolitan ferment and experimentation; it is now time to unveil new scholarship on another century too long regarded as backward and interstitial. The conventional periodization that blanks out the long fifteenth century from histories is not because nothing happened then. Quite the opposite; it is the diversity and intensity of politics and culture in this period that have rebuffed scholars searching for singular ideologies or narratives. This was a time of cultural production in languages and idioms that ran into each other, in vernaculars 'literized' for the first time, in the old classical languages modulated for new patrons. There was a certain 'democratization' of written culture: arriviste patrons could have genealogies and tales composed; performers could reinvent the epics for the new world; upwardly mobile chieftains could lay claim to languages and forms from which they were previously excluded. Spiritual yearnings were expressed in new vocabularies: some expressed the injustices of the present, others the worldly and other-worldly aspirations of the new patrons. Political turmoil meant that people travelled: in search of employment or business opportunities, for pilgrimage, war, or pleasure. Thanks to travel, a north Indian vernacular-bhakha-was disseminated and literized across north India while the transregional High Languages of Sanskrit, Arabic, and Persian continued to wield cultural cachet. The decentralization of power also meant that there was a demand for literary specialists as chieftains and merchants all sought poets, composers, and scribes. Many of these specialists were multilingual and travelled widely in search of patrons and opportunities. It is this hybrid, restless, multilingual ferment that nation -centred, monolingual scholarship has been unable to comprehend. How does this plethora of voices and texts relate to fifteenth-century polities? The contribution of this volume is that, for the first time, it foregrounds and embraces the diversity of what we have called the long fifteenth century and investigates the links between politics and cultural production.

Literature as History

Textbooks generally start from ‘hard’ evidence and documents such as coins, inscription, and historical chronicles typically compiled in centres of political power, to which literature and the arts are added as supplementary ornaments, usually under the rubrics of 'patronage' and, in the case of vernacular devotional literature, of an undefined 'popular culture'. But for a richly fluid time like the fifteenth century in north India, literary texts are often the only way we have to write social history, to write individuals and groups, their self-representation and worldview into the picture, which is otherwise a largely empty and dichotomous one of court and people, rulers and dynasties, Muslims and Hindus, men and, of course, hardly any women at all. To study these voices and texts, and to study them in relation to each other and within a wider comparative framework, means attempting to write a thicker and more comprehensive history than that usually available in textbooks. For this reason we have tried to include in this book the widest possible range, not just of cultural production but also of social contexts and types of self-expression, and to connect and intersect them in all possible ways.

The long fifteenth century was not a canon-making period. As Delhi after Timur became just one of many regional power centres (although always one with great symbolic importance), it becomes necessary to adjust our lens and look not for the great bureaucratic projects, imperial histories, or central linguistic and literary experiments of the Mughals, but for other genres of recording and remembering. Simon Digby remarks in this volume that after the relative stability of the greater Delhi Sultanate, the 'lesser' was a time during which few histories were written and from which even fewer survive. This remark is true only if we consider political histories from Delhi-Persian court histories continued to be written in Malwa, Jaunpur (although these do not survive), Gujarat, the Deccan, and in smaller sultanates such as Kalpi. Nevertheless, once we begin to look at other literary survivals and acknowledge how profuse and diverse they are, we find that each genre marks history in its own way. One basic assumption underlying this book is that producing literature in the form of heroic narratives, genealogical accounts, local or caste puranas, or biographies and hagiographies was a way of producing one's own history or inscribing oneself in larger histories. A large and varied body of texts in this period do exactly that-Aparna Kapadia's local Sanskrit narratives, Ramya Sreenivasan's vernacular ones, the Jain genealogies in the Apabhramsha texts of Eva De Clercq's essay, or the Persian texts by provincial Sufis in Francesca Orsini's. These are deliberate attempts by kings, merchants, and spiritual figures, through the medium of professional poets or members of their circles, to create narratives that become the history of their family or lineage and insert their protagonists or patrons into the history of a place or of a wider group. Some such histories are in book or manuscript form, while others are carved on stone inscriptions that record individual achievements and family trees on civic and religious buildings. History can also be found in other genres of texts, including in the many glossaries and dictionaries produced at this time, some that offer etymologies and lexical histories in their explanations, others that signal the linguistic needs of their commissioners and compilers. In the visual realm too, painters represented their surroundings even when they deliberately relocated 'classical' tales to local landscapes and climates, turning them into records of their own times. Many such conceptions of history are explored in this volume.

In addition, the long fifteenth century saw the emergence of the powerful voices and personalities of Ramanand (whatever his historicity), Kabir, Nanak, Raidas, Mira Bai, and Surdas, to name but a few. Although their words (bani) did not attempt to produce history in the same way as the ones mentioned above, they produced history all the same. Through their distinctly new forms of articulation, the rapid circulation of their words, and in a few cases, their active proselytizing, these figures prefigured the creation of widely shared discourses and new groups (called panths). If a new form of literature and its textualization is always linked to the emergence of a new power (with consequent realignments in the field of power), the emergence of these voices denotes a changed polity and the confident assertion of new historical subjects. Even though the words and songs of these charismatic figures were textualized only a century later, they marked as well as produced important socio-historical change. In the century following this textualization, their biographies and hagiographies followed in great number as their followers systematized the memorialization of both panth and bani.

 

Contents

 

  Acknowledgements vii
  Note on Tranliteration ix
  List of Plates and Figures xi
1 Introduction 1
  States, Subjects, and Networks  
2 After Timar Left: North India in the Fifteenth Century 47
3 Bandagi and Naukari: Studying Transitions in Political Culture and Service under the North Indian Sultanates, Thirteenth-Sixteenth Centuries 60
  Public Languages  
4 The Rise of Written Vernaculars: The Deccan 1450-1650 111
5 Turki and Hindavi in the World of Persian: Fourteenth- and Fifteenth- Century Dictionaries 130
6 Local Lexis? Provincializing Persian in Fifteenth- Century North India 166
7 Languages of Public Piety: Bilingual Inscriptions from Sultanate Gujarat, c. 1390-1538 186
  Tellings of Kings, Sufis and Warriors  
8 Universal Poet, Local Kings: Sanskrit, the Rhetoric of Kingship, and Local Kingdoms in Gujarat 213
9 Warrior- Tales at Hinterland Courts in North India,c. 1370-1550 242
10 Emotion and Meaning in Mirigavati: Strategies of Spiritual Signification in Hindavi Sufi Romance 273
  Cultural Spaces and Literary Transactions  
11 The Art of the Book in India under the Sultanates 301
12 Apabhramsha as a Literary Medium in Fifteen- Century North India 339
13 Early Hindi Epic Poetry in Gwalior: Beginnings and Continuities in the Ramayan of Vishnudas 365
14 Traces of a Multilingual World: Hindavi in Persian Texts 403
  Bibliography 437
  About the Editors and Contributors 471
  Index 477
Sample Pages























 

Post a Comment
 
Post Review
Post a Query
For privacy concerns, please view our Privacy Policy
Based on your browsing history
Loading... Please wait

Items Related to After Timur Left (Culture and Circulation in Fifteenth-Century North... (History | Books)

THE MAATHIR-UL-UMARA: BEING BIOGRAPHIES OF THE MUHAMMADAN AND HINDU OFFICERS OF THE TIMURID SOVEREIGNS OF INDIA FROM 1500 TO ABOUT 1780 A.D. (3 Volumes)
by H. BEVERIDGE BAINI PRASHAD
Vol I & II - Hardcover; Volume II - Paperback (Edition: 2003)
The Asiatic Society
Item Code: IDG159
$165.00$123.75
You save: $41.25 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
The History and Culture of the Indian People (Set of XI Volumes)
by R.C. Majumdar
Hardcover (Edition: 2010)
Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan
Item Code: NAJ001
$415.00$311.25
You save: $103.75 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Babur The Tiger (First of The Mughals)
by Harold Lamb
Hardcover (Edition: 2003)
Natraj Publishers
Item Code: NAJ573
$30.00$22.50
You save: $7.50 (25%)
SOLD
The Delhi Sultanate: The History and Culture of the Indian People (Volum VI)
by R.C. Majumdar
Hardcover (Edition: 2006)
Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan
Item Code: NAI196
$50.00$37.50
You save: $12.50 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Mughal Architecture (An Outline of its History and Development 1526-1858)
by Ebba Koch
Hardcover (Edition: 2014)
Primus Books
Item Code: NAM037
$60.00$45.00
You save: $15.00 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
The A'In-I Akbari  in 3 Volumes)
by Abu L-Fazl Allami
Hardcover (Edition: 2010)
The Asiatic Society
Item Code: NAC987
$145.00$108.75
You save: $36.25 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
The Mosques of The Indian Subcontinent (Their Development and Iconography)
Deal 12% Off
by Fredrick W. Bunce
Hardcover (Edition: 2008)
D. K. Printworld Pvt. Ltd.
Item Code: IDK826
$55.00$36.30
You save: $18.70 (12 + 25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
The History of Humayun Humayun-Nama by Gul-Badan Begam
Item Code: IDD267
$31.50$23.62
You save: $7.88 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Humayun Nama (The History Of Humayun)
by Gul-Badan Begam
Paperback (Edition: 2002)
Goodword Books
Item Code: NAE553
$20.00$15.00
You save: $5.00 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Advanced Study in The History of Medieval India (Set of 3 Volumes)
by J.L. Mehta
Paperback (Edition: 2015)
Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
Item Code: NAF222
$60.00$45.00
You save: $15.00 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
The Political Biography of a Mughal Noble Munim Khan Khan-I-Khanan 1457-1575.
Item Code: IDD835
$25.00$18.75
You save: $6.25 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Chittorgadh Kirtti-Stambha of Maharana Kumbha (The Ideal and The Form) (1440-60A.D)
by R. Nath
Hardcover (Edition: 1999)
Abhinav Publication
Item Code: IDJ982
$60.00$45.00
You save: $15.00 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Fatehpur Sikri (World Heritage Series)
by S.A.A.Rizvi
Paperback (Edition: 2002)
Archaeological Survey of India
Item Code: IHG057
$20.00$15.00
You save: $5.00 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Testimonials
The statues arrived yesterday. They are beautiful! Thank you!
Gregory Hancock Dance Theatre, Indiana
I have purchased several items from Exotic India: Bronze and wood statues, books and apparel. I have been very pleased with all the items. Their delivery is prompt, packaging very secure and the price reasonable.
Heramba, USA
Exotic India you are great! It's my third order and i'm very pleased with you. I'm intrested in Yoga,Meditation,Vedanta ,Upanishads,so,i'm naturally happy i found many rare titles in your unique garden! Thanks!!!
Fotis, Greece
I've just received the shawl and love it already!! Thank you so much,
Ina, Germany
The books arrived today and I have to congratulate you on such a WONDERFUL packing job! I have never, ever, received such beautifully and carefully packed items from India in all my years of ordering. Each and every book arrived in perfect shape--thanks to the extreme care you all took in double-boxing them and using very strong boxes. (Oh how I wished that other businesses in India would learn to do the same! You won't believe what some items have looked like when they've arrived!) Again, thank you very much. And rest assured that I will soon order more books. And I will also let everyone that I know, at every opportunity, how great your business and service has been for me. Truly very appreciated, Namaste.
B. Werts, USA
Very good service. Very speed and fine. I recommand
Laure, France
Thank you! As always, I can count on Exotic India to find treasures not found in stores in my area.
Florence, USA
Thank you very much. It was very easy ordering from the website. I hope to do future purchases from you. Thanks again.
Santiago, USA
Thank you for great service in the past. I am a returning customer and have purchased many Puranas from your firm. Please continue the great service on this order also.
Raghavan, USA
Excellent service. I feel that there is genuine concern for the welfare of customers and there orders. Many thanks
Jones, United Kingdom
Language:
Currency:
All rights reserved. Copyright 2018 © Exotic India