We gratefully acknowledge our indebtedness to the authorities of the Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, for accepting our work on Panini's Astadhyayi as a publication of the Akademi.
We also thank Mr. Ninad Mate, Ms Rajashree Kulkarni, M.A., LLB, and Ms Jayashree Susladkar of Aksharchhaya, Pune, for the interest shown and for the careful work done in preparing the press copy of the present volume.
Pune July 2005 S.D. Joshi J.A.F. Roodbergen
My sincere thanks are due to the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) for the grants awarded in 2004
J. A .F. Roodbergen
p.7.3:survey of the pada
A.The pada division
As stated in AP IV, p. 1, under 2, the division of the text of the A. into padas is rather arbitrary, but generally agrees with breaks in the topics dealt with. According to the KV, pada 7.2 ends with P. 7.2.118. The discussion in the Mbh. ends with P. 7.2.117. This is also the end of the second ahnika in pada 7.2. Hereafter the Mbh. continues with P. 7.3.1. We have stated earlier (AP XI, Introduction, p. xi) that the last two rules of P. 7.2. (P. 7.2.117 and 118) can be considered to form a transition to P. 7.3, because these two rules deal with urddhi replacements in taddhita formations. This is, in fact, the topic of P. 7.3.1-31. So why haven't P. 7.2.117 and 118 been taken with P. 7.3? We have no answer to that question. The only thing we know is that already in Patanjali's days the pada division as -we have it today was known.
B. The main topic
The main topic is aliga again, continued from P. 6.4. For details see AP IX, Introduction, p. ix. This topic is dealt with by means of rules mainly of two types. They are substitution rules which form the great majority, and augment rules.
C. The organization of P. 7.3
The main factor deciding rule order is anuvritti. Apart from that, P. 7.3, like the previous padas, shows an ordering of topics in sections, which at first sight appears to be arbitrary. Sections (indicated by number) are based on a common vidheya or karya. Further divisions like sub-sections and sub-sub-sections can be introduced as based on increasingly detailed specifications of the vidheya involving varying conditions or nimittas. The anuvrtti of the nimittas need not coincide with a particular section. The nimitta may overlap the division into sections ..
We mention the following sections:
(1) P. 7.3.1-31 deal with urddhi replacements in taddhita formations. The conditions taddhitesu (from P. 7.2.117) nniti(from P. 7.2.115) and kiti (from P. 7.2.118) are continued. P. 7.3.4-9 are prohibitions. Here the KV does not show the full anuvrtti, but confines itself to saying yad uktam tan na bhavati 'what has been stated, that is not (to be) applied.' In the translation, however, we have shown the full anuvrtti.
(2) P. 7.3.32-43 deal with substitutions and augments in causative verbal bases on different conditions for each rule. P. 7.3.32 discontinues all items due to anuvrtti from P. 7.2.117 onwards and comes in direct continuation of P. 7.2.116. We note that the vrddhi rules P. 7.3.34 and 35 come in between the augment rule P. 7.3.33 and the further augment rules P. 7.3.36-40. The reason for this order may lie in the desired continuation of the condition cinkrtoh.
(3) P. 7.3.44- 49 deal with substitutions in nominal bases conditioned by the fern. suffix aP.
(4) P. 7.3.50-51 deal with the substitution of ika and ka for the taddhita suffix tha
(5) P. 7.3.52-69 deal with the substitution of a velar for consonants in final or initial position of a verbal base before specified suffixes. Here P. 7.3.63-64 and 68-69 are nipatana rules.
(6) P. 7.3.70-71 deal with the substitution of the final vowel of the verbal bases called ghu and of verbal bases ending in -0.
(7) P. 7.3.72-73 deal with the deletion of the final vowel of the aor. suffix Ksa, and of the deletion of this suffix as a whole on a different condition for either rule.
(8) P. 7.3.74 deals with the substitution of a long vowel for the verbal base vowel in connection with sam-, etc., conditioned by the vikarana SyaN.
(9) P. 7.3.75-81 deal with (non-guna) substitutions taking place in or of a verbal base conditioned by a Sit vikarana.
(10) P. 7.3.82-83 deal with guna substitutions of the verbal base vowel in the case of specified verbal bases conditioned by a Sit vikarana or by the impf. ending Jus.
(11) P. 7.3.84-91 deal with guna substitutions of the verbal base vowel con- ditioned by a following sarvadhatuka or ardhadhatuka suffix.
(12) P. 7.3.92-100 deal with augments in connection with sarvadhatuka suf- fixes, on varying conditions for each rule. P. 7.3.97 deals with chandas.
(13) P. 7.3.101 deals with the substitution of long a for a in final position of a verbal stem conditioned by a following saruadhatuka suffix be- ginning with a yaN sound
(14) P. 7.3.102 deals with the substitution of long a for a in final position of a nominal base conditioned by case endings beginning with a yaN sound.
(15) P. 7.3.103-106 deals with the substitution of e for the vowel in final position of a nominal base before varying case endings.
(16) P. 7.3.107 deals with the substitution of a short vowel for long a of a fern. suffix in the case of words signifying amba and of fem. stems called nadi, in the sg. voc. (sambuddhau.
(17) P. 7.3.108-111 deal with the substitution of guna for a short vowel in final position of a nominal stem, on a different condition for each rule. The condition sambuddhau is continued in P. 7.3.108.
(18) P. 7.3.112-115 deal with augments for particular case endings, intro- duced on different conditions for each rule.
(19) P. 7.3.116-118 deal with substitutions for the i of sg. loc. case ending mainly in the case of stems called nadi.
(20) P. 7.3.119 deals with the substitution for the i of the sg. loc. in the case of stems called ghi.
(21) P. 7.3.120 deals with the substitution of na for the sg. instr. case ending of non-fem ghi stems.
As can be seen from the break-up into sections of P. 7.3, this pada shows an intricate pattern of organisation. The order of the topics which may seem haphazard is often dictated by the anuvrtti of the conditions. This is shown convincingly in the case of (13) and (14).
D. A synopsis of grammatical argument in the discussion of individual rules.
P. 7.3.1. In his bhasya on Vt. V on this rule Patanjali says that the mention of kevala in P. 7.3.5 provides a clue. The clue assumed is that taddhita rules in the angadhikara are applicable to words specified in the rules and to cps beginning with these words. It follows that PN, pbh. 29, does not hold good in the anga-dhikara when iaddhita formations are prescribed. The clue is referred to in the KV on P. 7.3.8.
P. 7.3.3 has been split in an (a) rule and a (b) rule, because the original rule constains two vidheyas, and because of the position of the particle iu, which, like ca, should come immediately after the first word of a rule. The (a) rule deals with cpo formation, and states a prohibition of orddhi for the first among vowels of an anga on specified conditions. The (b) rule prescribes the insertion of aiC vowels in a particular position, and is to be applied conjointly with the (a) rule. All rules from P. 7.3.3 till P. 7.3.9, inclusive, deal with prohibitions of urddhi.
P. 7.3.4. In connection with the example svar 'sky' the KV quotes a state- ment which says avyayanam bhamatre tilopah 'of avyayas deletion of the ti-portion takes place before any (suffix which causes the designation) bha.' The source of the statement is not known.
P. 7.3.10 is an adhikara. It merely mentions a word to be continued in the fol-lowing rules. up to P. 7.3.31, inclusive. It does not prescribe independently. From P. 7.3.11-31, inclusive, vrddhi is prescribed again.
P. 7.3.11. Here, to justify cp formation, the KV brings in the question of the tadantavidhi. The application of the tadantavidhi here is prohibited .by Vt. III on P. 1.1.72 and by PN, pbh. 31. To remove this difficulty, the KV refers to Vt. XVIII on P. 1.1.72. Thereby the application of P. 7.3.11 to the cpo formation in question is justified.
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