About the Books
Book I : Historical Background
Book II :Philosophy of Indian Constitution
Book III :Institutional Framework
Book IV :Federalism in India
Book V :Party System and Election in India
Book VI :Social and Political Movements
Book VII :Context of Indian State
The post-Independence India
has seen participation of all sections of the society in political processes of
the country to varying extent. It has been possible due to the contribution of
various classes in the Indian national Movement, which led to the achievement
of Independence of India. The new classes which emerged during the colonial
period provide a background to the politics of the post-Independence period.
This block consists of the four units.
1 discusses the
consequences of colonialism on India. The main point made in this unit is that
the conditions of the Indians were much better before the arrival of the
British. The colonial rule worsened them.
2 discusses the
responses of various segments of Indian society, i.e., peasantry, tribals,
middle classes, social reformers to the colonial rule.
3 is concerned
about the national movements, its different phases, ideologies and leaders.
4 deals with
the rise of the new classes in India during colonial period, i.e., zamindars,
tenants, peasant-proprietors, capitalist class, modern working class and modern
intelligentsia. It also discusses the factors of their rise along with other
The Consequences of Colonialism
Responses of Indian Society
Emergence of New Classes
The Constitution of India is
a document which aims to establish India as a "Sovereign Socialist Secular
Democratic Republic". It is based on a philosophy which aims to set up democracy
in India, enabling every citizen and the community their overall development.
It aims to contribute towards the growth and development of India. This block
deals with the philosophy of the Indian Constitution. It has four units.
The unit 5 deals with the processes, factors and people relating to
the framing of Indian Constitution.
The Unit 6 is concerned with the salient features of our Constitution.
It also provides a background to the framing of the Constitution.
The Unit 7 is about the outlook and philosophy of our Constitution;
ideas and dreams of the leaders of the Indian National Movement, and the way in
which they were articulated.
The Unit 8 deals with meaning of citizenship, relationship between the
citizen and the state, and between citizen and the community.
The Making of Indian Constitution
Vision of Social Transformation
Rights and Citizenship
The making, execution and implementation
of laws as well as their interpretation and application are important functions
of any government. In modern democracies, these functions broadly correspond to
legislative, executive and juridical functions performed by the three vital organs
of the government, the legislature, the executive and the judiciary. The form
of the government, however, may differ depending on the manner in which these
organs are structured and related to each other.
The constitution of India
provides for a parliamentary form of government based on the Westminster model.
Although transplanted, parliamentary institutions have taken deep root in
India. They have gained legitimacy and widespread acceptance by the people
across the ideological spectrum and throughout the country. Their meaning and
operations have been adapted to the Indian environment.
This block consisting of
five units. After examining the essential features of a parliamentary
government and the adaptation of parliamentary institutions in India (in Unit 9), this block deals with the
three important organs of the government, the legislature (Unit 10), the
executive (Unit 11) and the judiciary (Unit 12). Though bureaucracy is a part
of the executive, often described as the permanent executive, we thought it is
necessary to examine it in some detail (in Unit 13).
What It Means to be a Parliamentary Democracy ?
This block consists of five
units on federalism in India: The people's sovereignty in Indian polity is
shared between three units - centre, state and local level structures. With the
passage of the 73rd and 74th Constitutional amendments the Panchayati Raj
Institutions and municipalities have been recognised as the third layer of
federalism. Besides, there are federal units with unique status. In the light
of the changing social, cultural, political and economic processes, the
relationships among various units of federalism are affected. This in turn
affects the federal process.
This block will make you
aware of the nature of relationships among various units of the federal structures;
the constitutional provisions on federalism, and the factors which affect
federalism in India.
Unit 14 explains the nature
of federalism in India; the models on which it is based: and why India follows
a particular type of federal structure.
Unit 15 is concerned with
special provisions for regions like North-East India, Jammu and Kashmir, etc.
It explains the reasons for the need for the introduction of such provisions,
different from those meant for other regions of the country.
Unit 16 deals with the
issues of conflict and cooperation between centre- and the states.
Unit 17 discusses the
processes, reasons and factors related to the autonomy of the regions, and
movement in India and the changing criteria for the reorganisation of the
states in India.
Unit 18 is about what has
come to be known as the third layer of federalism; it is the local unit of
federalism. In the villages it is the Panchayati Raj Institutions and in the
cities, it is municipalities.
Nature of Indian Federalism
Special Provisions for North-East, J&K, etc.
Issues in Conflict and Cooperation in Indian
Autonomy Movements and State Reorganisation in
Local Self-Government Institutions: Rural and
This block consists of five
units on the party system and elections in India. Political parties and
elections are an integral part of democracy. While the political parties articulate
the interests of the people, the elections provide opportunity to the people to
choose their representatives from a large number of the parties or the
Unit 19 deals with the party
system in India. It explains the nature and characteristics of the party
system. It will acquaint the students with the socio-economic and political
factors which affect the party system in India.
Unit 20 deals with national
and regional political parties, their meanings, ideologies, social bases and
Unit 21 discusses the
significance of the elections, election system, election procedure and the role
of elections in the social change.
Unit 22 grapples with the
influence of the caste and class on politics, and that of the politics on caste
Unit 23 explains the meaning of coalition, different
forms of coalitions and nature and emergence of coalition governments in India.
Nature of Party System in
National and Regional
Caste, Class and Politics
This block deals with the social
and political movements of the deprived sections of society in India. They are
women, Dalits, tribals, workers and peasants. We shall also study environmental
movement, which though led by middle class social activists, affects all
sections of society.
Usually the scholars use the
"social" and "political" movements interchangeably. Social
movement is a collective action of the people. The sociologists assume that
social movements also include those movements which aim to bring about some
political change. There are different forms of collective actions but all of
them cannot be called movements. Some are spontaneous. Immediate reaction of a
group of the people to a particular event does not necessarily form social
movement. Mob action in rioting is collective action but not movement.
Similarly - action which is a part of institutional functioning like voting in
election is also not movement. Social movement is a collective deliberate
action. It is collective action for 'Protesting, against 'Policy(S) or action of the state or/and
It may be assertion for rights, identity or against injustice. Sometimes
collective action also aims at demanding solution of certain problems faced by
the people. Social movement has some formal or informal organisation,
objective, ideology -well formulated or vague-, leadership and programmes for
mobilisation of the participants and pressurise the political authority.
Social movements of
different types are evident in all societies as formal legal institutions are
not capable to resolve all problems of the people. Through movements people
express not only their grievances but also their aspirations. In that sense
social movement is a form of people's politics. The term 'social - movement'
gained currency in European languages in the early nineteenth century. This was
the period of social upheaval. The political leaders and authors who used the
term were concerned with the emancipation of exploited and underprivileged
classes. They wanted social transformation. Therefore, social movement has
implicit objective for social change.
Unit 24 deals with the
women's movement; historical background of the women's movement, issues
confronting women's movement in India, and the role of women in politics.
Unit 25 is concerned with
the dalit movement; meaning of dalit movement, issues involved in it, various
forms, phases and dalit organisations.
Unit 26 is about the tribal
movements; issues related to the tribal movement in India, and the reasons and
the consequences of the tribal movements.
Unit 27 deals with the
environment movements; issues and problems, role of the state, judiciary and the
Unit 28 is concerned with
the movements of the workers and peasants in India; their demands, problems and
leadership, and patterns of mobilisation in the their collective action.
Workers and Peasants
This last blo.ck of the
course on Government and Politics in India, titled context of Indian State is
to' bring to' your notice some of the problems that have emerged in the context
of the task of socio-economic transformation through democratic political processes. Both the trends which have
emerged as a result of interaction between socio-economic and political
processes and aberration that have emerged in the adopted political system have been analysed.
consists of four units.
The first unit, i.e., Unit 29 on Globalisation and
Liberalisation introduces you to'
of globalisation, which
is taking place in the present day world. In the context of various aspects of
globalisation it describes how Indian economy and the role of State have come
as a result of that It also
analyses the effects of Globalisation on various sectors
and sections of polity and society.
The Unit 30 is a description
of secularism and challenges it is facing from the forces of communalism,
Starting with an analysis of definition of secularism and it significance it
identifies the challenges this basic value of Indian political system is
facing. After locating the causes and mechanisms of the challenges particularly
communalism, the unit ends with suggestions to' formulate a strategy to' deal
with the problem.
The third unit in the block
that is Unit 31 is on Democracy in Search of Equality. Concern here is to'
identity the policies and strategies adopted in India, for attaining social
justice for the deprived, marginalised and vulnerable groups of society
including Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Backward Classes and Women, The
unit brings to' your attention the status of these groups in terms of their
expectations arising out of constitutional provisions. This also successes and
failures of the policies formulated and implemented for that.
The Unit 32 is the last unit
in the block. It is on Crime, Repression and Terror in Indian
Politics. It highlights the serious aberrations that have emerged in the system;
these are the phenomena of criminalisation of politics and its consequences for
future of democracy It also brings out increasing reliance of State and Ruling
Classes on use of Coercion and Repression. The unit also takes acco.unt of the
newly emerged phenomenon of terrorism and analysis its various facets.
It is hoped that by going
through this block you will be in a better position to understand and analyse
the prevailing political processes in India and contribute in its reformation
and corrections as a concerned citizen of this largest democracy of the world.
Globalisation and Liberalisation
Secularism and Communal Challenge
Democracy in Search of Equality
Crime, Repression and Terror in Indian Politics
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