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The Heart of Jainism
The Heart of Jainism
Description
About the Book

Jainism, the most fascinating and complex among the Indian religious, offers an interesting field of enquiry for the scholar of comparative religions. Originating as heterodox sect in the sixth century BC it has added considerably to the development of Indian thought and culture while maintaining to this day its distinct identity and philosophy as a religion par excellence of love and kindness. The history of Jainism attains a greater significance, in particular, for, despite the limited number of its adherents and its non-competitive character, it was able to stand on its own during the various stages of its history.

Mrs. Sinclair Stevenson, in her present work, The Heart of Jainism has analyzed these factors in significant detail. While tracing the origin of Jainism to the revolt of the Kshatriya against Brahmanical exclusiveness and the ritual-ridden structure, she has shown how it sustained itself through the course of its history. This, in her view, became possible because in Jainism the body of ascetics was provided adequately by its lay community and the permeation of strong Hindu influences. In this painstaking work, Mrs. Stevenson has examined, in clear details, not only the history and development of Jainism as it is practiced today. Her exposition of the Nine Categories of the Fundamental Truth of the Jainas and their subdivisions is distinguished by a careful and valuable analysis and she has gone into the details of examining the Jaina belief I existence and other allied terms as they mean to the Jaina Themselves. She has also described in detail the Jaina worship and religious customs, the various ceremonies observed during the life-time by Jaina-both the layman and the ascetic, mythology, architecture and literature. A Detailed treatment has been given to the analysis of the Nine Categories and the twenty-four Tirthankaras in the two appendices at the end of this work.

Marked by its vividness of detail derived from a close and personal knowledge and study, The Heart of Jainism should prove to be of great interest to the scholars of religion.

CONTENTS

Chapter I

Introduction
      The ideal of Indian thought death, not life - Attraction of asceticism - Revolt against Brahman exclusiveness - Rise of Buddhist and Jaina orders.
1

Chapter II
HISTORICAL SUMMARY
      The sixth century - Mahavira - order of Parsvanatha - Sudharma and his successors - The great famine and consquent migration under Bhadrabahu to Mysore - Sthulabhadra and the Council of Pataliputra - The canon of Scriptures - The nudity question - Idolatry - Suhastin - Disruption into Svetambara and Digambara sects - Council of Vallabhi - The Scriptures -Zenith of Jainism -Decline under Mohammedan and Saiva Persecution - Rise of Sthanakavasi sect - Modern conditions.
7

Chapter III
THE LIFE OF MAHAVIRA
      Birthplace - The fourteen dreams - Birth - Childhood and ledgends - Initiation - parsvanatha's Order - Legends of Mahavira's asceticism - Enlightenment - Preaching - Death - Previous incarnations.
21

Chapter IV
MAHAVIRA'S PREDECESSORS AND DISCIPLES
      Parsvanatha - The Four Vows of Parsvanatha - The twenty two earlier Tirthankara: - Risabhadeva - Ajitanatha - Sambhavanatha - Abhinandana - Sumatinatha - Padmaprabhu - Suparsvanatha - Candraprabhu - Suvidhinatha - Sitalanatha - Sreyamsanatha - Vasupujya - Vimalanatha - Anantanatha - Dharmanatha - Santinatha - Kunthunatha - Aranatha - Mallinatha - Munisuvrata - Naminatha - The Folowers of Mahavira:- Gosala - Gautama Indrabhuti - Sermon by Mahavira - Sudharma.
48

Chapter V
HISTORY OF THE JAINA COMMUNITY
      The four Tirtha:- Monks - Nuns - Laymen - Laywomen - The great leaders:- Jambu Svami - Prabhava - Sayambhava - Bhadrabahu - Sthulabhdra - The six Srutakevali - The Dasapurvi - The early Schisma:- Jamali's - Gosala's - Avyakta,Ksanikavadi, and Ganga Schisms - Mabagiri - Samprati - Suhastin - Susthitasuri - Indradinna - Kalikacarya - Siddhasena divakara - Vajrasvami - Vajrasena -Digambara schism - Differences between Svetambara and Digambara -Haribhadra Suri - Siddhasuri -Silagunasuri - Bappabhattisuri - Silangacarya - Abhayadevasuri - Hemacarya - Epigraphic Corroboration - The later sects - Non-idolatrous sects: Lonka - Sthanakavasi.
65

Chapter VI
INTRODUCTION TO JAINA PHILOSOPHY
      Origin of Jaina ideas - The Sankhya and Vedanta Schools - The Saptabhangi Naya
89

Chatper VII
THE NINE CATEGORIES OF FUNDAMENTAL TRUTHS
      i. JIVA (94): Prana - Divisions of Jiva: into Siddha and Samsari - Male, Female and Neuter - Hell - beings, Animals, Human being and Gods - Ekendriya, Be-indriya, Tri-indriya, Corendriya and Pancendriya - Prithvikaya, Apakaya, Teukaya, Vayukaya, Vanaspatikaya and Trasakaya - Two artificial division - Lesya division - Paryapti division.
      ii. AJIVA (106): Arupi: (Dharmastikaya - Adharmastikaya - Akasastikaya - Kala)-Rupi: (Pudgalastikaya).
      iii. MERRIT (110): Nine kinds (giving food, drink, clothes lodging and bed; good wishes, kind acts, kind words and reverence) - Forty-two ways of enjoying the fruit of Merit
      SIN(116)Eighteen kinds (killing, untruth, stinginess, impurity, acquisitiveness, anger, pride, deceit, greed, attachment, hatred, quarrelsomeness, slander, tale-bearing, criticism, lack of self-control, hypocrisy, false faith) - Eighty-two results of Sin.
      v. ASRAVA (Channels of Karma) (139): Seventeen major and twenty-five minor.
      vi. SAMVARA (Impeding of Karma) (144): Five points of good behaviour (Samiti) - Control of mind, speech and body (Gupti) - Twenty-two ways of enduring hardship (Parisaha) - Ten duties of Ascetics - Five Rules of Conduct (Caritra) - Tweleve important Reflection (Bhavana).
      vii. BONDAGE to Karma (163): Six Exterior Austerities - Six Interior Austerities.
      ix. MOKSA (169): The Siddha - Final Bilss.
94

Chapter VIII
KARMA AND THE PATH TO LIBERATION
Four Sources of Karma - Nine ways of arresting Karma - Eight kinds of Karma - their arrangement -Ghatin and Aghatin - Three tensaes of Karma - Fourteen steps to Liberation.
205

Chapter XI
THE JAINA ASCETIC
      Initiation - Daily duties - Begging - Confession - Leisure - Study - Nuns - Goraji - The Five Great Vows: (Non -killing - Truth - Honesty - Chastity - Detachment) - No meals after sundown - The ideal monk.
225

Chapter XII
THE END OF THE ROAD
      The Five Great Ones: (Sadhu - Upadhyaya - Acarya - Tirthankara - Siddha) - Rules by which even non-jaina may reach Moksa - The Three Jewels - The Three Evil Darts.
239

Chapter XIII
JAINA WORSHIP AND RELIGIOUS CUSTOMS
      Temple worship (Digambara and Svetambara) - Private worship - Jaina holy days - Pajjusana - Samvatsari - Divali - Full-moon fasts - Dusting day - the Eleventh - Saint -Wheel worship - Days of Abstinence - Consecration of an idol - Sravana Belgola festival - oil - Hindu Festival - Sraddha - Superstitions: Evil eye - Demons and ghosts -Plague and Small - pox - Childless women.
250

Chapter XIV
JAINA MYTHOLOGY
      Gods in Hell and Patala - Gods in Heaven - Divisions of time: Avasarpint and Utsarpint - The Twenty-four Tirthankara to come
268

Chapter XV
JAINA ARCHITECTURE AND LITERATURE
      Wooden Buildings - Stupa - Cave-Temple - The golden age of architecture - The shadow of Islam - Modern architecture - Architecture of the South - Jaina writers - Hemacandra - Modern literature.
279

Chapter XVI
THE EMPTY HEART OF JAINISM
      Attraction of Christ for the Jaina - Dissatisfaction with inadequate ideals - The problem of pain - Mahavira and Christ - The lack of Jainism - No Supreme God - No forgiveness - no prayer - no brotherhood of man - Difference in ideas of Heaven - Karma and Transmigration - Ahimsa and service - Ethics - Personality and life - The empty Throne
289

APPENDIX

      I. Analysis of the Nine Categories 299
      II. The Twenty-four Tirthankara of the Present Age 312
INDEX314

The Heart of Jainism

Item Code:
IJB04
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
1995
ISBN:
8121501229
Size:
8.8" X 6.0"
Pages:
360
Price:
$29.00   Shipping Free
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About the Book

Jainism, the most fascinating and complex among the Indian religious, offers an interesting field of enquiry for the scholar of comparative religions. Originating as heterodox sect in the sixth century BC it has added considerably to the development of Indian thought and culture while maintaining to this day its distinct identity and philosophy as a religion par excellence of love and kindness. The history of Jainism attains a greater significance, in particular, for, despite the limited number of its adherents and its non-competitive character, it was able to stand on its own during the various stages of its history.

Mrs. Sinclair Stevenson, in her present work, The Heart of Jainism has analyzed these factors in significant detail. While tracing the origin of Jainism to the revolt of the Kshatriya against Brahmanical exclusiveness and the ritual-ridden structure, she has shown how it sustained itself through the course of its history. This, in her view, became possible because in Jainism the body of ascetics was provided adequately by its lay community and the permeation of strong Hindu influences. In this painstaking work, Mrs. Stevenson has examined, in clear details, not only the history and development of Jainism as it is practiced today. Her exposition of the Nine Categories of the Fundamental Truth of the Jainas and their subdivisions is distinguished by a careful and valuable analysis and she has gone into the details of examining the Jaina belief I existence and other allied terms as they mean to the Jaina Themselves. She has also described in detail the Jaina worship and religious customs, the various ceremonies observed during the life-time by Jaina-both the layman and the ascetic, mythology, architecture and literature. A Detailed treatment has been given to the analysis of the Nine Categories and the twenty-four Tirthankaras in the two appendices at the end of this work.

Marked by its vividness of detail derived from a close and personal knowledge and study, The Heart of Jainism should prove to be of great interest to the scholars of religion.

CONTENTS

Chapter I

Introduction
      The ideal of Indian thought death, not life - Attraction of asceticism - Revolt against Brahman exclusiveness - Rise of Buddhist and Jaina orders.
1

Chapter II
HISTORICAL SUMMARY
      The sixth century - Mahavira - order of Parsvanatha - Sudharma and his successors - The great famine and consquent migration under Bhadrabahu to Mysore - Sthulabhadra and the Council of Pataliputra - The canon of Scriptures - The nudity question - Idolatry - Suhastin - Disruption into Svetambara and Digambara sects - Council of Vallabhi - The Scriptures -Zenith of Jainism -Decline under Mohammedan and Saiva Persecution - Rise of Sthanakavasi sect - Modern conditions.
7

Chapter III
THE LIFE OF MAHAVIRA
      Birthplace - The fourteen dreams - Birth - Childhood and ledgends - Initiation - parsvanatha's Order - Legends of Mahavira's asceticism - Enlightenment - Preaching - Death - Previous incarnations.
21

Chapter IV
MAHAVIRA'S PREDECESSORS AND DISCIPLES
      Parsvanatha - The Four Vows of Parsvanatha - The twenty two earlier Tirthankara: - Risabhadeva - Ajitanatha - Sambhavanatha - Abhinandana - Sumatinatha - Padmaprabhu - Suparsvanatha - Candraprabhu - Suvidhinatha - Sitalanatha - Sreyamsanatha - Vasupujya - Vimalanatha - Anantanatha - Dharmanatha - Santinatha - Kunthunatha - Aranatha - Mallinatha - Munisuvrata - Naminatha - The Folowers of Mahavira:- Gosala - Gautama Indrabhuti - Sermon by Mahavira - Sudharma.
48

Chapter V
HISTORY OF THE JAINA COMMUNITY
      The four Tirtha:- Monks - Nuns - Laymen - Laywomen - The great leaders:- Jambu Svami - Prabhava - Sayambhava - Bhadrabahu - Sthulabhdra - The six Srutakevali - The Dasapurvi - The early Schisma:- Jamali's - Gosala's - Avyakta,Ksanikavadi, and Ganga Schisms - Mabagiri - Samprati - Suhastin - Susthitasuri - Indradinna - Kalikacarya - Siddhasena divakara - Vajrasvami - Vajrasena -Digambara schism - Differences between Svetambara and Digambara -Haribhadra Suri - Siddhasuri -Silagunasuri - Bappabhattisuri - Silangacarya - Abhayadevasuri - Hemacarya - Epigraphic Corroboration - The later sects - Non-idolatrous sects: Lonka - Sthanakavasi.
65

Chapter VI
INTRODUCTION TO JAINA PHILOSOPHY
      Origin of Jaina ideas - The Sankhya and Vedanta Schools - The Saptabhangi Naya
89

Chatper VII
THE NINE CATEGORIES OF FUNDAMENTAL TRUTHS
      i. JIVA (94): Prana - Divisions of Jiva: into Siddha and Samsari - Male, Female and Neuter - Hell - beings, Animals, Human being and Gods - Ekendriya, Be-indriya, Tri-indriya, Corendriya and Pancendriya - Prithvikaya, Apakaya, Teukaya, Vayukaya, Vanaspatikaya and Trasakaya - Two artificial division - Lesya division - Paryapti division.
      ii. AJIVA (106): Arupi: (Dharmastikaya - Adharmastikaya - Akasastikaya - Kala)-Rupi: (Pudgalastikaya).
      iii. MERRIT (110): Nine kinds (giving food, drink, clothes lodging and bed; good wishes, kind acts, kind words and reverence) - Forty-two ways of enjoying the fruit of Merit
      SIN(116)Eighteen kinds (killing, untruth, stinginess, impurity, acquisitiveness, anger, pride, deceit, greed, attachment, hatred, quarrelsomeness, slander, tale-bearing, criticism, lack of self-control, hypocrisy, false faith) - Eighty-two results of Sin.
      v. ASRAVA (Channels of Karma) (139): Seventeen major and twenty-five minor.
      vi. SAMVARA (Impeding of Karma) (144): Five points of good behaviour (Samiti) - Control of mind, speech and body (Gupti) - Twenty-two ways of enduring hardship (Parisaha) - Ten duties of Ascetics - Five Rules of Conduct (Caritra) - Tweleve important Reflection (Bhavana).
      vii. BONDAGE to Karma (163): Six Exterior Austerities - Six Interior Austerities.
      ix. MOKSA (169): The Siddha - Final Bilss.
94

Chapter VIII
KARMA AND THE PATH TO LIBERATION
Four Sources of Karma - Nine ways of arresting Karma - Eight kinds of Karma - their arrangement -Ghatin and Aghatin - Three tensaes of Karma - Fourteen steps to Liberation.
205

Chapter XI
THE JAINA ASCETIC
      Initiation - Daily duties - Begging - Confession - Leisure - Study - Nuns - Goraji - The Five Great Vows: (Non -killing - Truth - Honesty - Chastity - Detachment) - No meals after sundown - The ideal monk.
225

Chapter XII
THE END OF THE ROAD
      The Five Great Ones: (Sadhu - Upadhyaya - Acarya - Tirthankara - Siddha) - Rules by which even non-jaina may reach Moksa - The Three Jewels - The Three Evil Darts.
239

Chapter XIII
JAINA WORSHIP AND RELIGIOUS CUSTOMS
      Temple worship (Digambara and Svetambara) - Private worship - Jaina holy days - Pajjusana - Samvatsari - Divali - Full-moon fasts - Dusting day - the Eleventh - Saint -Wheel worship - Days of Abstinence - Consecration of an idol - Sravana Belgola festival - oil - Hindu Festival - Sraddha - Superstitions: Evil eye - Demons and ghosts -Plague and Small - pox - Childless women.
250

Chapter XIV
JAINA MYTHOLOGY
      Gods in Hell and Patala - Gods in Heaven - Divisions of time: Avasarpint and Utsarpint - The Twenty-four Tirthankara to come
268

Chapter XV
JAINA ARCHITECTURE AND LITERATURE
      Wooden Buildings - Stupa - Cave-Temple - The golden age of architecture - The shadow of Islam - Modern architecture - Architecture of the South - Jaina writers - Hemacandra - Modern literature.
279

Chapter XVI
THE EMPTY HEART OF JAINISM
      Attraction of Christ for the Jaina - Dissatisfaction with inadequate ideals - The problem of pain - Mahavira and Christ - The lack of Jainism - No Supreme God - No forgiveness - no prayer - no brotherhood of man - Difference in ideas of Heaven - Karma and Transmigration - Ahimsa and service - Ethics - Personality and life - The empty Throne
289

APPENDIX

      I. Analysis of the Nine Categories 299
      II. The Twenty-four Tirthankara of the Present Age 312
INDEX314

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