Moral Education- A Practical Approach
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Moral Education- A Practical Approach

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Item Code: NAU145
Author: K. Rama Rao
Publisher: Ramakrishna Ashrama
Language: English
Edition: 2009
Pages: 337
Other Details: 8.50 X 5.50 inch
Weight 310 gm
About The Book

This book is not a bundle of dry precepts but a scholarly exposition of the necessity for moral education for children. It has in it effective means of transforming them. It contains the meaning, objectives, curriculum for different age-groups in the subject, and teaching learning techniques. The author deserves to be congratulated.


This book is a humble contribution to the field of moral and spiritual education. It is intended for all teachers and more particularly for those interested in or entrusted with the teaching of the subject. The experience gained by me in handling the subject 'Methods of Teaching Moral Education' in this Institution (RIMSE) for the B.Ed., trainers for over six years has enabled me to put into black and white the ideas which I have used during the course of instruction in the subject. These, I believe are very much in conformity with the syllabus in the subject as approved by the university of Mysore.

Ethics is the theoretical basis for practicing morality in daily life. As such the fundamental principles of ethics both from the point of view of India as well as from that of the west have been dealt with in the beginning. The concept of morality in practical life has been different in different human societies and is changing from time to time even though there are certain moral principles which are absolute and universal. The scope of morality originating in simple forms with the ushering in of the first human societies in certain parts of the world has now extended to the whole world, which is tending to become one family. Individuals or social groups can no longer function is isolation. Their actions may have repercussions over large masses of population not in any way directly connected with the source. While moral standards have gone low all over the world, we in India feel the pinch much more because of some events which have happened in this country particularly after independence. While there is a cry for moral education from several quarters, there seem to be different opinions regarding how it should be imparted. However, our stand has been very clear on this issue. We believe it should be through all the available means at our disposal even though we have suggested five broad approaches namely, the direct, the integrated, the incidental, the activity based and the most important-the one by personal example of the teacher.

Conscience is generally accepted by all as one's own judge on moral issues. But no child is born moral or immoral, or with a developed conscience. Human society, the family, the school and other social agencies make an individual, what he is. Conscience, generally taken as the standard of conventional morality, may not be equally acute in all people. It can be trained and educated. Its Judgements are always all people. It can be trained and educated. Its Judgements are always not infallible. Deliberate training of conscience is indispensable for moral development. Hence the process of moral development in children is dealt with briefly. This chapter had to be based inevitably and mainly on the studies made of children in the west, since few such studies are made on Indian children. Incidentally the role of parents and teachers in the moral development of children has also been dealt with.

What should be the goals of moral education at the school level? What is the current thinking on this issue among individuals and social organizations? This aspect has been considered in some detail and finally a comprehensive set of goals or general objectives of moral education has been suggested. These include among others scientific temper, certain moral capacities and virtues. Besides serving as objectives they are intended to serve as bases for teach-ers to search for and to formulate the content for moral education. It is hoped that this latter purpose will be served in the case of at least a few capable teachers, Three curricula, in the form of out-lines, have be suggested for direct moral education for the three age groups 5-9, 9-13 and 13-16. No definite content material has been suggested. This is deliberately done so because the content for moral education can vary much, more particularly in a country like India which is variegated in its culture, language and religion. This means while a moral objective could be the same, the stories, illustrations, examples, situations, etc., selected as source material by teacher in different parts of India or even in the same region could be different.

One may know the objectives and also possess the source material for moral education. But how is one going to use the materials to realize the objectives? This is the next most important problem for teachers. The list of general objectives mostly covers the cognitive aspect (the knowledge and understanding). While these are important by themselves the application and skill aspect are equally, if not more, important. To develop the will to live a morally good life. to keep away from evil habits, to develop a spirit of sacrifice and an attitude of consideration for others etc., are only a few among many similar applications of morality. All these involve moral thinking, an interest in morality and a positive attitude towards it. Five approaches have been recommended for lessons in teaching the subject 1. The Direct Approach, 2. The Integral Approach, 3. The Incidental Approach, 4. The Activity Approach and 5. The Demonstration Approach-through example. Under the Direct Approach, two techniques have been suggested. The first is the one based on, 'Reasoning' (Inducto-deductive). The second is that of 'Discovery' . In a broad sense these, really, are the only two techniques of teaching employed in any other subject as well, even though many different names have been used. Both these approaches have been illustrated through several examples giving details of steps of procedure. The steps are only indicative of the procedure and not to be taken as binding. A thinking and resourceful teacher can use them wisely and for better results. The goal of education is said to be 'to put thinking heads on rising shoulders'. The goal of moral education must be to enables students to think and decide about moral issues and not to be fanatic, blind or dogmatic. These have been kept in view in the methods suggested here.


For the past twelve years Ramakrishna Institute of Moral and Spiritual Education has been imparting instruction in this subject to would-be teachers and to teachers already in service. How-ever there was a felt need for a textbook in the methodology of Moral and Spiritual Education and we are happy that this need is now fulfilled. It is the result of experience gained over twelve years and is a product of the co-operative effort of the monastic members as well as the other members of the staff. We are happy that Prof. K. Rama Rao has taken pains to bring out this book. As he has acknowledged in his introduction to the book, he has drawn material widely and from various sources, which is as it should be, in such a work as this.

This is probably a first book on the subject, 'Methods of Teaching Moral and Spiritual Education'. It should not be the last; fur-ther it may be hard to claim that the book satisfies all the require-ments of teachers in the subject. At best it gives a broad outline for teaching the subject to school children and sets some guidelines for finding out the content. The methods suggested need not be taken as sacrosanct. It is for the teachers to use the ideas for the benefit of children and to bring more such books in the field so that the youth of India may draw inspiration for a better moral and purposeful life. We are happy that Dr. D.S. Kothari (Ex-Chairman U.G.C. and Chairman, Education Commission of 1964-66) presently Chancellor, Jawaharlal Nehru University Delhi, who has a genuine concern for value oriented education has been kind enough to write a foreword to the book.

It is my fervent wish and prayer that this book will prove useful to the teaching community and that it will also initiate a spate of good writing on the subject so that the eternal values may be preserved and propagated more widely among the youngsters, filling a lacuna that is badly felt at the present time.

**Contents and Sample Pages**

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