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Six Systems of Indian Philosophy - The Sutras of Six Systems of Indian Philosophy (with English Translation, Transliteration and Indices)

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  From the Jacket:   The word of philosophy in Sanskrit, viz. Darsanam denotes that it is science of 'Thinking - consideration' - 'Vicarasastram'. Its contents are not mere speculation in regard to the duties of man or the verities of life. There are two prominent divisions in Indian philosophy. The first is concerned with the rational demonstration of the propositions of duty laid down in the Veda. Here is indicated the answer to the question of the type...

 

From the Jacket:

 

The word of philosophy in Sanskrit, viz. Darsanam denotes that it is science of 'Thinking - consideration' - 'Vicarasastram'. Its contents are not mere speculation in regard to the duties of man or the verities of life. There are two prominent divisions in Indian philosophy. The first is concerned with the rational demonstration of the propositions of duty laid down in the Veda. Here is indicated the answer to the question of the type : What man should do or avoid in order to achieve happiness in some state of specific existence. This is the Dharma, or the Karma-mimamsa. The second discusses questions in regard to the truths of the fundamental nature of things, which man should realize by direct experience, so that he may e absolutely free. This is, therefore, known as Tattva-mimamsa, or Moksa-darsana. Apart from the three heterodox schools of Materialism, Jainism and Buddhism, there are only six metaphysical systems in Indian Philosophy: The Nyaya, the Vaisesika, the Samkhya, the Yoga, the Mimamsa, and the Vedanta.

The present work is a compilation of the Sutras of six systems of Indian Philosophy. That is, the work compiles the Nyaya-sutras, the Vaisesika-sutras, the Samkhya-sutras, the Yoga-sutras, the Mimamsa-sutras and the Brahma-sutras, and their English transltion.

It is now for the first time that the Sutras of six systems of Indian Philosophy with their English translation and transliteration altogether is brought to light. It is hoped that it will be received well by all the students and scholars interested in Indian Philosophy.

 

About the Author:

 

M.M. Agrawal is Professor in Sanskrit at University of Delhi. He is an author of many books and has contributed several papers and articles in India and abroad. Some of his outstanding books are 'The Philosophy of Nimbarka' (awarded by Sanskrit Sahitya Parisad, Calcutta), 'Bhavaprakasana of Saradatanaya' (awarded Visesa Puraskara by Sanskrit Academy, Lucknow), 'Essence of Vaisnavism' (Sophia Indological Series No. 5), 'Aspect of Indian Philosophy', 'Srimadbhagavadgita' with the commentary Gudharthadipika of Madhusudana Sarasvati (in two Vols.) and 'Brahmasutra-nimbarka-bhasya' with three commentaries, viz. Vedanta-Kaustubha, Vedanta-Kaustubha-prabha, and Bhavadipika (in four Vols.).

 

 

Introduction

Philosophy is in general an interpretation of man and nature and its basis in the analysis assessment and exposition of the process of knowledge. The Indian systems of philosophy however demonstrate by reasoning propositions in regard to what a man ought to do in order to gain true happiness or what he ought to realize by direct experience in order to free himself completely from the three kinds of pains adhyatmika physical and mental sufferings produced by natural and intra organic causes and thus be absolutely independent. In other words they either deal with Dharma the moral value of virtue or Moksa the spiritual value of freedom. The word for philosophy in Sanskrit viz, Darsanama denotes that it is the science of thinking consideration vicarasastram its contents are not mere speculation in regard to the duties of man or the verities of life.

There are two prominent divisions in Indian philosophy. The first is concerned with the rational demonstration of the propositions of duty laid down in the Veda. Here is indicated the answer to the questions of the type what man should do or avoid or order to achieve happiness in some state of specific existence. Thus is the Dharma or the Karma mimamsa. The second disusses questions in regard to the truths of the fundamental nature of things which man should realize by direct experience so that he may be absolutely free. This is therefore known as Tattva mimamsa or Moksa darsana. Apart from the three heterodox schools of Materialism Jainism and Buddhism there are only six metaphysical systems in Indian philosophy. The Nyaya the Vaisesika the Samkhya the yoga the Mimamsa and the Vedanta.

The Indian thinkers offer the fruits of their speculations with certain presuppositions a clear statement of which is necessary therefore for their right appraisal. But in this respect they may be linked to their counterparts in the west where it is held that man cannot know metaphysical truths by direct experience or (2) even granting that some day they may be known so far no man has known them and (3) therefore being pure speculations the various schools of Indian philosophy, like the contradictory and that if one is true all the rest must be false. Now the pre suppositions of the Indain thinkers are (1) Man can know metaphysical truths directly (2) there have been such men and there may still be Rsis or seers (3) the Rsis teach metaphysical truths after knowing them directly and (4) while all Rsis know the same truths just as all men of sight see same sun they teach these truths in different standards represented by the texts of the schools.

It is important to remember these facts to arrive at a correct estimate of the value of the conclusions offered by the Indian schools of thought. That some scholars of the west too were aware of those characteristics of Indian thought is borne out by Max Muller’s remakes. The longer I have studied the various systems the more have I become impressed with the truth of the view taken by Vijnanabhiksu and others that there is behind the variety of the six systems a common found which may be called the national or popular philosophy a large Manasa lake of philosophical thought and language far away in the distant north and in the distant past from which each thinker was allowed to draw for his own purposes.

Indian philosophy divides itself properly speaking into three points (1) the Vedic period (2) the Upanisadic periods and (3) the post Vedic period. The Vedic period means the period of the samhitas the Brahmanas and the Aranyakas especially of the Rgveda samhita. The Samhitas consists mostly of hymns in praise of nature gods such as Agni, Vayu etc. excepting in some of the hymns of the later parts of the Samhitas there is no philosophy proper in them. It is here that we first find intensely proper in them. It is here that we first find intensely interesting philosophical question of a cosmological character. In the Brahmanas and the Aranyakas character. In the Brahmanas and the Aranykas which followed the Vedic hymns there are two tendencies one that sought to establish the magical forms of ritualistic worship and the other which indulged in speculative thinking through crude generalizations. The latter tendency was indeed much weaker than the former and it might appear that the ritualistic tendency had actually swallowed up what little of philosophy the later parts of the samhitas were trying to express.

The Upanisadic period is quite distinct in character from the first though it is but the natural result of it. If the thought during the first period was mainly cosmological with only a trace here and there of philosophy proper the second period was mainly philosophical. The Upanisads contain various sorts of philosophical thoughts mostly monistic but also some pluralistic and dualistic ones.

The post Vedic period is s ystematic period which saw the development of the so called six orthodox systems viz the Nyaya the Vaisesika the Samkhya the Yoga the Mimamsa generally known as Purva Mimamsa or Karma Mimamsa and Vedanta known also as Uttara Mimamsa or Jnana Mimamsa. The germs of all these systems were already present in the Upanisads. In addition to those systems some theistic systems began to grow prominent from the ninth century A.D. they also probably had their early beginnings at the time of the Upanisads. This systematic period may be supposed to have begun with the collections of Sutras which are regarded as the foundations of the several systems. The intervening stage between the Vedas and the Upanisands on the one hand and the sutras on the other is represented by the Philosophicla protions in the Mahabharata as for instance the Bhagavadgita the Moksa dharma etc.

 

 

CONTENTS

Nyaya Sutras of Gautam

 

Chapter One  
First Adhyaya 1-9
Second Adhyaya 9-12
Chapter Two  
First Adhyaya 13-22
Second Adhyaya 22-32
Chapter Three  
First Adhyaya 33-43
Second Adhyaya 43-54
Chapter Four  
First Adhyaya 55-63
Second Adhyaya 67-70
Chapter Five  
First Adhyaya 71-78
Second Adhyaya 78-82

 

Vaisesika Sutras of Kanada

 

Chapter One  
First Section 85-89
Second Section 89-91
Chapter Two  
First Section 92-95
Second Section 96-100
Chapter Three  
First Section 101-103
Second Section 103-106
Chapter Four  
First Section 107-109
Second Section 109-110
Chapter Five  
First Section 111-113
Second Section 113-116
Chapter Six  
First Section 117-119
Second Section 119-121
Chapter Seven  
First Section 122-125
Second Section 125-128
Chapter Eight  
First Section 129-130
Second Section 131-131
Chapter Nine  
First Section 132-134
Second Section 134-136
Chapter Ten  
First Section 137-138
Second Section 138-139

 

Samkhya Aphorisms of Kapila

 

Chapter One  
The Subject 143-167
Chapter Two  
The Creation and its Formation 169-174
Chapter Three  
Dispassion (Varajna) 175-185
Chapter Four  
Tales on Declaration of the Samkhya 186-190
Chapter Five  
Refutation of the Opinions of the Opponents 191-209
Chapter Six  
The Summing up 210-220

 

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

 

Chapter One  
Samadhi Pada 223-230
Chapter Two  
Sadhana Pada 231-238
Chapter Three  
Vibhuti Pada 239-248
Chapter Four  
Kaivalya Pada 249-253

 

Mimamsa Sutras of Jaimini

 

Chapter One  
First Pada 257-261
Second Pada 261-267
Third Pada 267-271
Fourth Pada 272-275
Chapter Two  
First Pada 276-282
Second Pada 282-286
Third Pada 287-290
Fourth Pada 291-295
Chapter Three  
First Pada 296-299
Second Pada 300-306
Third Pada 306-312
Fourth Pada 313-320
Fifth Pada 320-327
Sixth Pada 327-333
Seventh Pada 334-341
Eight Pada 341-347
Chapter Four  
First Pada 348-355
Second Pada 355-360
Third Pada 360-366
Fourth Pada 366-372
Chapter Five  
First Pada 373-378
Second Pada 378-382
Third Pada 382-388
Fourth Pada 388-392
Chapter Six  
First Pada 393-400
Second Pada 400-405
Third Pada 406-412
Fourth Pada 412-418
Fifth Pada 419-426
Sixth Pada 427-432
Seventh Pada 433-438
Eight Pada 438-444
Chapter Seven  
First Pada 445-448
Second Pada 449-451
Third Pada 452-457
Fourth Pada 457-460
Chapter Eight  
First Pada 461-466
Second Pada 467-470
Third Pada 471-475
Fourth Pada 476-479
Chapter Nine  
First Pada 480-488
Second Pada 489-496
Third Pada 496-502
Fourth Pada 503-511
Chapter Ten  
First Pada 512-519
Second Pada 520-529
Third Pada 529-540
Fourth Pada 540-548
Fifth Pada 548-560
Sixth Pada 560-571
Seventh Pada 571-581
Eight Pada 582-592
Chapter Eleven  
First Pada 593-603
Second Pada 603-612
Third Pada 613-620
Fourth Pada 621-628
Chapter Twelve  
First Pada 629-635
Second Pada 635-640
Third Pada 641-646
Fourth Pada 646-652

 

Vedanta Sutras of Badarayana

 

Chapter One  
First Pada 655-659
Second Pada 659-663
Third Pada 664-669
Fourth Pada 669-673
Chapter Two  
First Pada 674-679
Second Pada 679-684
Third Pada 685-691
Fourth Pada 691-694
Chapter Three  
First Pada 695-698
Second Pada 698-703
Third Pada 704-712
Fourth Pada 713-719
Chapter Four  
First Pada 720-722
Second Pada 722-725
Third Pada 725-727
Fourth Pada

 

727-730
Index of Slokas  
Nyaya Sutras of Gautam 733-740
Vaisesika Sutras of Kanada 741-746
Samkhya Aphorisms of Kapila 747-754
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali 755-757
Mimamsa Sutras of Jaimini 758-795
Vedanta Sutras of Badarayana 796-803

 

Sample Page


Item Code: IDE096 Author: Madan Mohan Agrawal Cover: Hardcover Edition: 2014 Publisher: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan Language: with English Translation, Transliteration and Indices Size: 8.8" X 6.0" Pages: 846 Other Details: Weight of the Book: 1.115 Kg
Price: $42.00
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