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The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy -An Old Book

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Publisher's Note During the last years we have reprinted several important out of print works all of which have been greatly welcomed by scholars and students of Indian thought. Thus encouraged we are now bringing out the present work which has been written by the most illustrious of the Orientalists form the West Prof. Max Muller. The work deals with the Six Systems of Indian Philosophy about the greatness of which Prof. Max Muller himself observes: "it was only in a country...

Publisher's Note

During the last years we have reprinted several important out of print works all of which have been greatly welcomed by scholars and students of Indian thought. Thus encouraged we are now bringing out the present work which has been written by the most illustrious of the Orientalists form the West Prof. Max Muller.

The work deals with the Six Systems of Indian Philosophy about the greatness of which Prof. Max Muller himself observes: "it was only in a country like India, with all its physical advantages and dis-advantages, that such a rich development of philosophical thought as we can watch in the six system of philosophy, could have taken place."

With this high degree of admiration Prof. Max Muller has tried in the present work to publish the result of his own studies in Indian philosophy, not so much to restate the mere tenets of each systems, so deliberately and so clearly put forward by the reputed authors of the principal philosophies of India, as to give a more comprehensive account of the philosophical activity of our country from the earliest times, and to show how intimately not only our religion, but our philosophy also was connected with our national character.

We hope that our present effort would also be welcomed by the Scholars and students alike.




Introductory Chapter
Philosophy and philosophers 1
Srutam and Smritam 2
Upanishad-period, from about 700 B.C. 4
Period antecedent to the Upanishads 5
Intellectual Life in ancient India 7
Kshatriyas and Brahmans 8
The Evidence of the Upanishads, ganka, Agatasatru 11
Agatasatru 13
Buddhist Period 14
Prasenagit and Bimbisara 16
Brahma-gala-sutta 16
Mahabharata 21
Buddha 23
Greek Accounts 26
Buddhist Pilgrims, Hiouen-thsang 27
King Harsha 30
Chapter II
The Vedas
The Vedas 30
The Philosophical Basis of the Vedic Gods 35
Three Classes of Vedic Gods 37
Other Classification of Gods 38
The Visve or All-gods 39
Tendencies towards Unity among the Gods 40
Henotheism 40
Monotheism and Moism 41
Pragapati 42
Visvakarman 43
Tvashtri 43
Search for a Supreme Deity 45
Hymn to the Unknown God 46
Brahman, Atman, Tad Ekam 48
Nasadiya Hymn 49
Brahman its various Meanings 52
Birth and Brahman, word 55
East and West 58
Mind and Speech 67
Atman 70
Pragapati, Brahman, Atman 72
Chapter III
The System of Philosophy
Growth of Philosophical Ideas 74
Prasthana Bheda 75
Literary References in the Upanishads 84
The Six System of Philosophy 85
Brihaspati Sutras 86
Books of Reference 87
Dates of the Philosophical Sutras 88
Samkhya-Sutras 90
Vedanta-Sutras 90
Mnemonic Literature 92
The Brihaspati Philosophy 94
Common Philosophical Ideas 104
1. Metempsychosis- Samsara 104
2. Immortality of the Soul 105
3. Pessimism 106
4. Karman 109
5. infallibility of the Veda 111
6. Three Gunas 111
Chapter IV
Vedanta or Uttara-Mimamsa
Vedanta or Uttara-Mimamsa 113
badarayana 116
Fundamental Doctrines of the Vedanta 121
Translation of the Upanishads 137
Character of the Upanishads 139
Vedanta-Sutras 140
Appeals to the Veda 143
Pramanas 143
Pramanas according to the Samkhya 144
Pratyaksha 144
Anumana 145
Sabda 145
Authority of the Vedas 149
The Meaning of Veda 149
Work-part and Knowledge-part of the Veda 151
Vidya and Avidya 152
Subject and object 152
The Phenomenal Reality of the World 154
Creation or Causation 155
Cause and Effect 156
Dreaming and Waking 160
The higher and the Lower Knowledge 164
Is virtue Essential to Moksha 166
The Two Brahmans 168
Philosophy and Religion 171
Karman 171
Brabman is Everything 172
The Sthula and Sukshma-Sartra 173
The Four States 174
Eschatology 175
Freedom in this Life 180
Different Ways of Studying Philosophy 182
Ramanuga 185
Metaphors 195
Chapter V
Purva-Mimamsa 197
Contents of the Purva-Mimamsa 200
Pramanas of Gaimini 202
Sutra-style 203
Has the Veda a Superhuman Origin 206
Supposed Atheism of Purva-Mimamsa 210
Is the Purva-Mimamsa a system of Philosophy 213
Chapter VI
Samkhya-Philosophy 215
Later Vedanta mixed with samkhya 215
Relative Age of Philosophies and Sutras 219
Age of the Kapila-Sutras 220
Samkhya-Karika 222
Date of Gaudapada 223
Tattva-samasa 224
Anteriority of Vedanta or Samkhya 229
Atheism and Orthodoxy 231
Authority of the Veda 232
Samkhya hostile to Priesthood 233
Parallel development of Philosophical Systems 235
Buddhism subsequent to Upanisads 236
Lalita-vistara 237
Asvaghosh's Buddha-Karita 237
Did Buddha borrow from Kapila 240
Bana's Harshakarita 241
The Tattva-samasa 242
List of 25 Tattvas 244
The Avyakta 245
Buddhi 246
Ahamkara 249
Five Tanmatras 250
16 Vikaras 251
5 Buddhindriyas 251
5 Karmendriyas 252
Manas 252
5 Mahabhutas 252
Purusha 253
Is Purusha an Agent 255
Three Gunas 255
Is Purusha one or many 256
Vedanta Sayings 256
Early Relation between Vedanta and Samkhya 258
Traigunya 262
Samkara and Pratisankara 264
Adhyatma, Adhibhutta, Adhidaivata 264
Abhibuddhis (5) 265
Karmayonis (5) 266
Vayus 267
Karmatmans (5) 267
Avidya, Nescience (5) 268
Asakti, Weakness (28) 268
Atushti and Tushti 269
Asiddhis and Siddhis 269
Tushtis and Siddhis 270
Mulikarthas 270
Shashti-tantra 271
Anugraba-sarga 271
Bhuta-sarga 272
Bandha, Bondage 272
Dakshina- Bondage, gifts to Priests 272
Moksha 273
Pranmanas 273
Duhkha 273
The true Meaning of the Samkhya 275
Nature of Pain 276
Vedanta and Samkhya 279
Vedanta, Avidya and Aviveka 280
Samkhya Aviveka 281
Atman and Purusha 285
Origin of Avidya 289
The Sastra 289
Development of Prakriti, Cosmic 290
Retrospect 290
Is Samkhya Idealism 293
Purusha and Prakriti 295
State of Purusha, when Free 296
Meaning of Pain 297
Purusha 298
Prakriti and Automaton 298
Prakriti's Unselfishness 299
Gross and Subtle Body 300
The Atheism of Kapila 302
Immorality of the Samkhya 304
Samkhya parables 305
Chapter VII
Yoga Philosophy
Yoga and Samkhya 307
Meaning of the word yoga 308
Yoga, not Union but Disunion 309
Yoga as viveka 310
Patangali, vyasa 313
Second Century B.C. 314
Chronology of thought 315
The Yoga Philosophy 317
Misconception of the Objects of Yoga 318
Devotion to Isvara, Misconception 319
What is Isvara 321
Kapila's Real Arguments 327
The Theory of Karman 330
The four Books of yoga-Sutras 334
True object of Yoga 335
Kitta 336
Functions of the Mind 337
Exercises 338
Dispassion, Vairagya 338
Meditation With or Without an Object 341
Isvara once more 343
Other Means of obtaining Samadhi 344
Samadhi Apragnata 347
Kaivalya, Freedom 347
Yogangas, Helps to Yoga 348
Vibbutis, Powers 349
Samyama and Siddhis 350
Miracles 352
True yoga 355
The Three Gunas 357
Samskaras and Vasanas 357
Kaivalya 359
Is yoga Nihilism 359
Chapter VIII
Nyaya and Vaiseshika
Relation between Nyaya and Vaiseshika 362
Dignaga 364
Bibliography 368
Nyaya-Philosophy 369
Summum Bonum 370
Means of Salvation 373
The 16 Topics or Padarthas 374
Means of Knowledge 374
Objects of Knowledge 375
Padartha, object 376
Six Padarthas of Vaiseshika 376
Madhava's Account of Nyaya 377
I Pramana 378
Perception or Pratyaksha 379
Inference or Anumana 379
Comparison or Upamana 382
Word or Sabda 382
II. Prameya 382
III. Samsaya 385
IV. Prayogana V. Drishtanta. VI. Siddhanta 385
VII. The Avayavas, or Members of a Syllogism 385
VIII. Tarka 386
IX. Nirnaya 388
X-XVI. Vada, Galpa, Vitanda, Hetvabhasa, Gati, Khala, Nigrahasthana 389
Judgments on Indian Logic 390
The Later Books of the Nyaya 391
Pratyaksha, Perception 392
Time-Present, Past and Future 393
Upamana, Comparison 394
Sadba, the Word 394
The Eight Pramanas 395
Thoughts on Language 397
Sphota 402
Words express the Summum Genus 405
Words expressive of Genera or Individuals? 406
All Words mean 406
Vedanta on Sphota 410
Yoga and Samkhya on sphota 412
Nyaya on Sphota 413
Vaiseshika on Sphota 414
Prameyas, objects of Knowledge 415
Indriyas, Sense 415
Sarira, body 416
Manas, mind 416
Atman 419
Memory 419
Knowledge not Eternal 421
More Prameyas 421
Life after Death 422
Existence of Deity 422
Cause and Effect 423
Phala, Rewards 425
Emancipation 425
Knowledge of ideas, not of things 426
Syllogism 427
Pramanas in different Philosophical Schools 428
Anumana for others 431
Chapter IX
Vaiseshika Philosophy
Date of Sutras 438
Dates from Tibetan Sources 439
Kanada 440
Substances 441
Qualities 441
Actions 442
Cause 443
Qualities Examined 443
Time 444
Space 444
Manas 445
Anus or Atoms 445
Samanya 447
Visesha 447
Samavaya 447
Abhava 448
The Six System 449
Index 461

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Item Code: IDG924 Author: Prof. Max Muller Cover: Paperback Edition: 2008 Publisher: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office ISBN: 9788170800218 Language: English Size: 7.2" X 5.0" Pages: 478 Other Details: Weight of the Book: 410 gms
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