The Rig Veda or Rig Veda Samhita is the oldest and the
most important of the four Vedas. It consists of ten mandalas (books), which have 1,028 suktas or ruchas (hymns)
comprising of 10,552 mantras known as ruks (verses) that
were revealed to various rishis at different periods of time.
The mantras are prayers mainly to the nature gods to grant
riches, progeny, long life, peace, and eternal happiness; and
some mantras refer to victories of princes and kings in wars,
subjects like marriage, generosity and other mundane things.
The main devas or gods of the Rig Veda were Agni (fire-god), Indra (rain-god), Varuna (ocean-god), Mitra (sun-god),
Vayu (wind-god), Prajapati (creator) and the Ashwins (divine
physicians). The Rig Veda also has mantras like the Nasadiyasukta and Purushasukta that are concerned with cosmology
and creation. The Rig Veda contains philosophical ideas that
form the basis of later philosophies derived and developed
by the rishis. Bhakti or devotion also has its origin in the Rig
Veda Samhita. It teaches monotheism or belief in one Supreme Reality who is called by different names. The worship
of the Supreme Reality having a form and qualities (saguna
upasana) is also referred to in the Rig Veda. The Aitareya and
Kaushiraki Aranyakas and Upanishads were developments
from the Rig Veda.
The Vedic rishis were both male and female. Some of
the prominent male rishis included Angiras, Agastya,
Vasishtha, Vishwamitra, Grutsamada. The main female
rishis were Ghosha, Godha, Apala, Kuhu, Sarama and
The special priest of the Rig Veda is called a bots, He is
an expert who recites the mantras of the Rig Veda to invoke
the devas for receiving the oblations.
The mantras of the Rig Veda are in Vedic Sanskrit. For
thousands of years these mantras have been meticulously
transmitted orally, and finally when they came to be first
written in the last few millennia, they were inscribed on
dried palm leaves. Consequently, for thousands of years up to
the present, there has been no change or corruption in the chanting and meaning of the Vedic mantras.
Q1. How many books are there in
Rig Veda consists of 1028 hymns and 10,600 verses organized into ten (10) books
known as maṇḍalas.
among them are Nasadiya, Purusha, Aksha,
Dhana-anna-dana, Hiranyagarbha, Yama-Yami-samvad, Duhsvapna-nashna etc.
Suktas are offered to various gods, including Indra, Maruta, Varuna, Usha,
Surya, Bhumi, Soma, Agni, etc. So, in a nutshell, we may say that in Rigveda a
variety of issues are explained in poetic, philosophical, or religious terms by
Vedic seers. The first and tenth Mandalas are the youngest and the longest. The
mantra is in Rig Veda, and is taken from Mandala 3.
Q2. How is Rigveda different from
The most important point of
difference between the Rigveda and modern books is that today books are written
and read. The Rigveda was chanted and heard; it was later handwritten and
passed on to the later generations by speaking, listening, and then memorizing.
The text of the Rigveda is in Sanskrit, while most of the current books are
either in English or some other modern language. In praise of gods and
goddesses, the Rig Veda includes hymns. Modern books may be about any topic at
Q3. What is the purpose of Rigveda?
is a large collection of hymns in praise of the gods, which are chanted in
various rituals. They were composed in an ancient language named Vedic that
gradually evolved into classical Sanskrit. The Rig Veda consists of 1028 hymns,
organized into ten books known as maṇḍalas.
Rig Veda is all about how one can attain liberation. It contains the timeless
knowledge of this and especially the power of chanting and the liberating
effect on the mind that mantras have. The correct chanting of mantras helps to
tranquilise the mind. What we get to know from the Rigveda is the role of sound
and vibration in liberation.
Q4. Who created Rigveda?
Rigveda is a collection of hymns or sūktas on
various gods and goddesses composed of different Rishis - 329 males and 27
females (Rishikas). They are considered “authorless” because they were the
insights or visions of these extraordinary poets - thus they are called “seers”
those who “see”. The Aryans refined old hymns, and composed new hymns that
eventually were compiled to form the Rig Veda, by sage Veda Vyasa, who is
widely revered and credited for compiling much of Hinduism's most prominent and
influential spiritual texts, including the Vedas in Sanskrit. Veda Vyāsa
then taught them to his four disciples for preservation and transmission,
Jaimini, Pila, Vaisampayana, and Sumantha.
Q5. How old is the Rigveda?
is no definite and conclusive answer to how old the Rig Veda is. But scholars
now agree that Rig Veda can be dated around 4500 – 5000 BC, even much older. In
1985, the Indian National Science Academy published a volume, History of
Astronomy in India, wherein the Harappan civilization and the Brahmana period
are correlated, and the Rig Veda is dated to about 7th millennium B.C. Rig Veda
is the oldest of the Vedas, the sacred texts of Hinduism. It means “The
Knowledge of Verses”. Written in Sanskrit around 1500 BC, Rig Veda consists of
1028 poems arranged into 10 circles or Mandalas. Puranic historians have dated
the Vedas, based on internal astronomical evidence, to 7,000 BCE (9,000 years
Q6. Where is the original Rigveda
first written manuscripts of Veda were lost millennia ago and certainly do not
exist anymore. The texts we have now are all copies of copies of copies and so
on. We do not have the original manuscripts. The earliest known surviving
copies (the 30 manuscripts) are copies of the Rig Veda and Atharva
Veda form a valuable part of the collection. They are currently held in the
Bhandarkar Oriental Institute in Pune, Maharashtra, India. They are dated
around the thirteenth century AD, roughly 2,500 years or so after the earliest Vedas are most often
thought to have been composed. These manuscripts reveal several unique features
in terms of scripts, accentuation marks, and support material used, among
Q7. Who wrote rig veda?
Rigveda is a collection of hymns and suttas on various gods and goddesses
compiled by different Rishis – 329 males and 27 females (Rishikas). They are
considered authorless because they were the insights or visions of these
extraordinary poets. Thus they are called “seers” those who see”.
Vyāsa (the “compiler of the Veda”)
was supposed to have been a sage who collected them and compiled the Veda as we
know it today. Veda Vyāsa then taught them to his four
disciples for preservation and transmission. Sage Ved Vyasa‘s parents have been
rishi Parashara (Father) and Satyavati (Mother)
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