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Medieval Orissa’s powerful Hindu Identities Glorified and Cherished

An exhaustive assessment of Orissa's set of experiences gives us some charming data with respect to Hindu political and military achievements, especially during the medieval times. Right up to the third quarter of the sixteenth century, when an enormous part of the remainder of India had fallen to Islamic rulers, it was a solid and invincible Hindu domain. In Kalinga, the Jagannath tradition was thriving. The inhabitants of the kingdom felt the effects of this quite strongly. Hindus psychologically received spiritual support to defend their kingdom for Jagannath's sake without the fear of dying. Tales of bravery and dedication from this era are told in Odia folklore and literary works. Odisha consequently evolved into a Hindu military state. Hindus who were being persecuted in neighboring areas used to seek sanctuary in Hindu Odisha during this time. A Rajput dynasty from north India sought refuge in western Odisha after fleeing Islamic persecution. During the reign of Prataprudra Deva, Pandit Ramakrishna Bhatta, an educated individual from distant Malwa, migrated to Cuttack and lived there. During the Bahamani sultanate's dominion, a dictator by the name of Sanjar Khan was selling Hindus in Telangana as slaves. Kalinga’s invincible Hindu army gained victory over Khan’s rule. The popularity of the Jagannatha tradition throughout India was a result of the kings' political freedom brought about by their military victories. That explains why Odisha has so many Hindu temples that are still standing today. The invincible military control of the Hindu land of Orissa was capable of withstanding the Islamic attack; and successfully integrated the valuable teachings of the Vedanta and the Hindu Shastras, helping in the creation of a beautiful Hindu culture, arts and tradition in these parts of the country.

The Nine Beliefs of Hinduism

The world’s oldest mystical religion, Hinduism stands tall on nine beliefs. They are- 

  1. Hindus assume that there is just one, all-encompassing Supreme Being, the Maker and Unmanifest Absolute, who is both omnipresent and transcendent.

  2. Hindus revere the Agamas as equally enlightened and hold the four Vedas, the world's oldest religious text, to be divine. These ancient songs form the foundation of Sanatana Dharma, the eternal religion, and the word of God.

  3. Hindus consider that there are infinite cycles of creation, survival, and annihilation throughout the universe.

  4. Hindus maintain that each person shapes his or her own future via beliefs, speech, and actions, according to the principle of effect and cause known as karma.

  5. Hindus consider that the soul progresses through numerous lives until all karmas have been atoned for and moksha, or freedom from the cycle of rebirth, has been obtained. Nobody shall be denied the opportunity to fulfill this destiny.

  6. Hindus hold the view that Gods and divine creatures can be communicated with through temple worship, rituals, sacraments, and private devotional traditions.

  7. The Omnipotent Absolute, according to Hinduism, can only be known by an enlightened master, or satguru, as well as through self-control, moral behavior, purification, devotion, reflection, mindfulness, and total dedication to God.

  8. Hindus embrace ahimsa, or noninjury, in spirit, speech, and action because they believe that all life is important and should be cherished and honored.

  9. Hindus hold that no religion teaches that one path is superior to all others as the only path to salvation, but rather that all sincere paths are manifestations of God's Light and require compassion and understanding.


Q1. What are the four sects of Hinduism?

The four well-known sects of Hinduism are- Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Shaktism and Smartism.

Q2. What sort of religious belief is Hinduism?

Hinduism is a henotheistic religion;i.e; they believe in one supreme God, Brahman.